Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Plant Breeding Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Agronomy Department, Tarbiate-Modares University, Tehran, Iran


In order to determine the yield response, essential oil content and secondary metabolites of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) to biological and chemical fertilizers a two-year field experiment was conducted at Persian Gulf University (Bushehr region) during the 2009 and 2010 growing season. Experimental treatments including sheep manure (15 t/ha), sheep manure + mycorrhiza (as biological fertilizer) and chemical NPK (70-62-0 kg/ha in the form of urea and triple superphosphate respectively) were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that the highest dry flower yield (939.72 kg ha-1) was obtained under sheep manure nutrition system in the second year. Also, the highest amount of flower diameter (2.39 cm), plant height (35.11cm) and dry biomass (3497.6 kg ha-1) were obtained with chemical fertilizer in the second year. In contrast, biological nutrition system (sheep manure + mycorrhiza) led to the highest harvest index (45.26 %) in the 2nd year and had significant priority in 5% level to other treatments for root colonization. In both years except for phosphorous content, chemical nutrition system was the superior treatment for N and K percentage in plants. This treatment has also the highest essential oil extractction efficacy (0.357 %) in the 2nd year; however, the highest Chamazulen amount (8.22%) and Apigenin 7-glocoside (1.44 %) were obtained in plants treated with biofertilizers. Altogether, our findings suggest that chamomile nutrition with biofertilizers compared to the chemical fertilizer could obtain acceptable dry flower yield, essential oil and secondary metabolites. Therefore, it could be a good strategy for decreasing chemical fertilizers, and ensuring the economic profits, environment health and food security for consumers. 


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