تأثیر محلول‌پاشی برگی گاما-آمینوبوتیریک اسید (GABA) بر سرمازدگی و کیفیت پس از برداشت گوجه‌فرنگی رقم نیوتون

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم و مهندسی باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
گوجه‌فرنگی یکی از سبزی‌های مورد علاقه و پرمصرف در جهان است که میوه آنسرشارازمواد معدنی، ویتامین‌هاوترکیباتضد‌اکسایشیمی‌باشد، اما این محصول با خاستگاه گرمسیری به دمای پایین حساس است که محدودیت جدی در عرضه پس از برداشت محصول دارد. در این آزمایش اثر تیمار دو هفته قبل از برداشت اسید گاما-آمینوبوتیریک در سه سطح (صفر، 5 و 10 میلی‌مولار) بر کیفیت پس از برداشت و سرمازدگی میوه گوجه‌فرنگی رقم نیوتون در سال 1396 در دانشگاه کردستان مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برداشت میوه بعد از مرحله بلوغ فیزیولوژیک صورت گرفت. پس از برداشت میوه، طی دوره انبارداری (در دمای 4 درجه سلسیوس و رطوبت نسبی 95-90 درصد) در روزهای صفر، 5، 10، 15 و 20 برخی خصوصیات فیزیکی، زیست شیمیایی و صدمه سرمازدگی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. میزان سرمازدگی میوه شاهد در روز آخر 25 درصد مشاهده شد، در‌حالی‌که در تیمار اسید گاما-آمینوبوتیریک 10 میلی‌مولار 33/8 درصد بود. تیمار برگی اسید گاما-آمینوبوتیریک سبب کاهش از دست دادن وزن، حفظ سفتی و همچنین، حفظ ویتامین ث و اسیدیته قابل تیتراسیون نسبت به تیمار شاهد گردید. تیمار اسید گاما-آمینوبوتیریک سبب بهبود ویژگی‌های کیفی و افزایش رنگیزه لیکوپن در گوجه‌فرنگی نسبت به میوه‌های شاهد شد و خسارت سرمازدگی را به‌طور قابل توجهی کاهش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Gamma-Amino-Butyric Acid (GABA) Foliar Application on Chilling and Postharvest Quality of Tomato (cv. Newton)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Lolav Zarei 1
  • Mahmoud Koushesh Saba 2
  • Yavar Vafaee 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Tomatoes are considered the favorite and most widely consumed vegetables in the world since their fruit is rich in minerals, vitamins and antioxidant compounds. Tomato fruit is harvested after physiological maturity at different color stages based on consumption type. Mature unripe tomato fruit could be stored for long time and be ripened according to market demand, but this tropical product is susceptible to low temperature, which imposes serious constraints in postharvest period and supply chains. Several techniques or chemical treatments have been used to decrease low temperature deleterious effects. Gamma-mino butyric acid (GABA), as an efficient tool, could increase plant resistance to chilling injury (CI) during postharvest life. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of pre-harvest GABA spray on postharvest quality changes and chilling of tomato fruit during cold storage.
 
Materials and Methods
In this study, the effect of pre-harvest application of GABA at three concentrations (0, 5 and 10 mM) on postharvest quality and chilling of tomato cv. Newton was evaluated. The spray was carried out 2 weeks before harvest. Fruits were harvested after physiological maturity when the fruit color changed from pink to red. During storage period at 4 °C and 90-95% relative humidity, some fruit quality attributes such as weight loss, firmness, chilling injury of tomato fruit, soluble solid content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and fruit bioactive constituent were analyzed at days 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20.
 
Results
Chilling in control fruit was 25% at final assessment, while in 10 mM GABA treatment it was only 8.33% at the same time. GABA treatments decreased the rate of weight loss and retained fruit firmness during storage. Also, vitamin C and titratable acidity in GABA treatments were higher than those of untreated fruit. Fruit lycopene content increased during fruit storage in both treated and untreated fruit, but the value was greater in GABA treatments than the control. SSC increased during fruit storage, but it was greater in control than the treatments. While superoxide dismutase enzyme activity decreased in both treated and untreated fruit, the rate of decline in control fruit was greater than GABA treatments.
Discussion
Pre-harvest foliar application of GABA ameliorated chilling injury induced by cold storage, maintained quality properties of tomato fruit, and increased lycopene content. GABA treatments probably lessened deteriorate effect of low temperature through keeping fruit cell integrity and higher bioactive constituent levels.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bioactive compounds
  • Enzyme activity
  • Firmness
  • Lycopene
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