اثر کودهای زیستی و شیمیایی نیتروژن و ریزمغذی آهن بر عملکرد و کیفیت علوفه ذرت (Zea mays L.)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
به منظور بررسی اثر کودهای زیستی در تلفیق با کودهای شیمیایی وآهن بر عملکرد و صفات مرتبط با کیفیت
علوفه ذرت رقم متوسط رس
MV500، آزمایش اسپلیت پلات بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال 1391 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه کردستان انجام شد. فاکتور اصلی آزمایش شامل سطوح مختلف کود نیتروژن:کود زیستی حامل باکتری  Azorhizobium caulinodans، kgha-1150 کود اوره + کود زیستی Azorhizobium caulinodans،کود زیستی حامل باکتری‌های Bacillus Subtilis،Pseudomonas Flurescens  و Azospirillum ssp < /strong>، کود زیستی حامل Bacillus Subtilis،Pseudomonas Flurescens  و Azospirillum ssp < /strong>+ kgha-1 150 اوره، بدون کود اوره، kgha-1 450 اوره،کود زیستی حامل Azorhizobium caulinodans+  kgha-1300 اوره، کود زیستی حاملBacillus Subtilis، Pseudomonas Flurescens  و Azospirillum ssp < /strong> + kgha-1 300 اوره و فاکتور فرعی کود آهن در دو سطح شامل kgha-1 10 لبیریل آهن و شاهد بدون کود آهن بود. نتایج نشان داد کاربرد تلفیقی کودهای زیستی و شیمیایی همراه با آهن به افزایش درصد پروتئین خام و کاهش درصد الیاف نامحلول در شوینده خنثی واسیدی ذرت در مقایسه با کاربرد کودهای شیمیایی به تنهایی و عدم مصرف آهن منجر شد. بیشترین عملکرد علوفه خشک از کاربرد کود زیستی Bacillus Subtilis،Pseudomonas Flurescens  و Azospirillum ssp < /strong>+  kgha-1300 اوره همراه با کود آهن و کمترین مقدار آن از تیمار شاهد بدون کود اوره و آهن حاصل گردید. نتایج این پژوهش نشان دادتأمین تلفیقی نیتروژن مورد‌نیاز ذرت از طریق کاربرد کود زیستی حامل باکتری‌هایBacillus Subtilis،Pseudomonas Flurescens  و Azospirillum ssp < /strong> + kgha-1 300 اوره همراه با مصرف آهن به حصول بیشترین عملکرد و کیفیت علوفه منجر می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Biological and Chemical Nitrogen Fertilizers and Iron Micronutrient on Forge Quality and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hoda Mohammadi 1
  • Gholamreza Heidari 2
  • Yousef Sohrabi 2
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Improving forage yield and quality is a major concern for the producer. Sustainable crop production requires careful management of all nutrient sources in agroecosystems. Biological fertilizers, including Azospirilum, Azotobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas bacteria, can increase plant growth and yield through biological nitrogen fixation and increased solubility of macro elements such as phosphorus. Iron is the most important micro element for crops. Iron is required to perform many plant metabolism and growth activities. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biological fertilizers combined with chemical fertilizers and iron micro element on yield and quality of maize (MV 500 cultivar) forage.
 
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plots consisted of different levels of urea fertilizer: Nitrokara biofertilizer, 150 kgha-1 urea + Nitrokara biofertilizer (Azorhizobium caulinodans), Super Nitro Plus biofertilizer (Azospirillum, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens), Super Nitro Plus biofertilizer + 150 kgha-1 urea without nitrogen fertilizer 450 kgha-1 urea, Nitrokara biofertilizer +300 kgha-1 urea, and Super Nitro Plus biofertilizer + 300 kgha-1 urea. The subplots consisted of two iron levels, including 10 kgha-1 iron chelate (Fe EDTA) and without iron application. The measured traits were crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, ash, leaf to shoot ratio, ear to plant ratio and forage yield. Data were analyzed using MSTATC software.
 
Results
Analysis of variance showed that the interaction effects of nitrogen fertilizer sources and iron levels were significant on crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, ash, ear/plant ratio and forage yield. The highest crude protein and ash of maize forage were obtained from supernitroplus + 300 kgha-1 urea and iron application. Control treatment (without nitrogen and iron fertilizers) produced the most ADF and NDF values. The highest dry forage yield belonged to Super Nitro Plus + 300 kgha-1 urea with iron fertilizer and the lowest value obtained from control treatment without N and iron fertilizers.
 
Discussion
The results of this study showed that the combined application of supernitroplus biofertilizer and urea fertilizer along with iron micro element increased maize forage quality and yield compared to the sole application of urea chemical fertilizer. Microorganisms constituting biofertilizers are very benefitial to the plant. They have the ability to enhance plant growth through increasing nutrient availability and uptake with minimal contribution to the environmental pollution, unlike the use of pure mineral fertilizers. The integration of biofertilizers and moderate mineral N fertilizer application accompanied with iron micro element is highly recommended in the production of maize forage.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biofertilizer
  • Chemical fertilizer
  • Crude protein
  • Nitrogen levels
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