عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Objectives
Potato is extremely sensitive to water stress, both from inadequate or excess water, resulting in reductions of tuber yield, and quality. The plant has a relatively shallow root system, with about 85% typically in the upper 30 cm of soil, increasing the sensitivity of the crop to water stress. Variation in soil moisture conditions can also lead to the occurrence of tuber physiological disorders such as brown center, hollow heart, growth cracks, bruise susceptibility, and heat necrosis, typically during the bulking period. A direct relation between low moisture conditions of soil and misshapen tubers has been reported. The aim of study was to assess the growth, yield, yield components and water productivity of some conventional potato varieties in Bardsir region of Kerman.
Material and methods
In order to evaluate the effect of various irrigation methods on growth, yield and yield components of potato varieties, an experiment was conducted as split-plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at experiment station of the Agricultural Faculty of Bardsir, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman during 2015 and 2016. The experimental treatments were irrigation methods: 1- Furrow (flooding), 2-sprinkler and 3- drip assigned to main plot and potato varieties: 1- Marfona, 2- Sante, 3- Agria and 4- Banba as subplot.
The results showed that effect of irrigation method was significant (P≤0.01) on all the studied traits except in water productivity and percentage of tuber dry mater. The highest of mean tuber weight (71.55 g), number of marketable tuber (6.99), tuber yield (36.98 t ha-1) and shoot dry weight (5.97 t ha-1) were recorded in furrow irrigation method. The lowest values of the traits were observed at sprinkler method. Effect of variety treatment on all traits was significant (P≤0.01). For drip and sprinkler irrigation methods, the largest tuber was related to Sante variety, and in surface method was gained at Marfona. The highest number of tuber per plant belongs to Sante variety (9.50) followed by Marfona (8.89) which had a significant difference with Banba (7.15) and Agria (6.88) varieties. Tuber percentage of dry weight for Agria variety (27.22) was significantly higher than other varieties (19.93-22.74). The tuber yield for Sante, Marfona, Banba and Agria was 34.84, 28.91, 26.14 and 21.57 t ha-1, respectively. The maximum level of water productivity (5.93) was gained for santé variety in sprinkler irrigation method.
In general, the results indicated that Marfona variety was justly appropriate for flooding irrigation conditions, and santé variety is best for low water supply (drip and sprinkler irrigation methods).