تأثیر کود سبز تحت شرایط مختلف خاک‌ورزی بر خصوصیات علف‌های‌هرز و عملکرد ذرت (Zea mays L.)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین، ملاثانی، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
به ‌منظور بررسی تأثیر تیمارهای مختلف کود سبز و انواع سامانه‌های خاک‌ورزی در راستای نیل به اهداف کشاورزی پایدار، آزمایشی شامل تیمارهای مختلف خاک‌ورزی (خاک‌ورزی رایج و کم‌خاک‌ورزی) به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و منابع مختلف کود سبز (کود سبز ماش، لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی و بقایای گندم) به‌همراه تیمار شاهد به‌عنوان عامل فرعی اجرا شد. این آزمایش در شهرستان شوش از توابع استان خوزستان در سال زراعی 94-1393 به‌صورت استریپ‌پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. نتایج حاصل از آنالیز داده‌ها نشان داد که بیشترین میزان عملکرد ذرت تحت تأثیر تیمار بقایای گندم (27/10399کیلوگرم در هکتار) مشاهده شد، که با تیمار کود سبز لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی (48/10013 کیلوگرم در هکتار) تفاوت معنی‌داری نداشت. همچنین کمترین میزان عملکرد در تیمار عدم مصرف کود سبز (شاهد) (01/7382 کیلوگرم در هکتار) رؤیت گردید. بیشترین میزان عملکرد زیستی ذرت با اعمال کم‌خاک‌ورزی (16139 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و همچنین با کاربرد بقایای گندم و کود سبز لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی (به‌ترتیب 89/17170 و 37/16790 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به‌دست‌آمد. همچنین بهترین تیمار از نظر تأثیرگذاری روی تراکم، تنوع و وزن خشک علف‌های‌هرز، تیمار کود سبز ماش در حالت کم‌خاک‌ورزی بود. بر اساس نتایج حاصل در مرحله 4 تا 6 برگی، با انجام خاک‌ورزی رایج، علف‌‌هرز عروسک پشت‌پرده و در حالت کم‌خاک‌ورزی، علف‌‌هرز خرفه به‌عنوان علف‌هرز غالب مزرعه شناسایی شد. در مرحله رسیدگی ذرت نیز هم در حالت خاک‌ورزی رایج و هم در حالت کم‌خاک‌ورزی، علف‌‌هرز غالب مزرعه عروسک پشت‌پرده بود که در هر دو مرحله بیشترین وزن خشک علف‌های‌هرز را نیز به خود اختصاص دادند. لذا کاربرد بقایای گندم و کود سبز لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی همراه باکم‌خاک‌ورزی می‌تواند راهکاری مناسب در جهت افزایش عملکرد ذرت و کاهش تنوع و زیست‌توده علف‌های‌هرز در کشاورزی پایدار بشمار آید.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Green Manure under Different Conditions of Tillage on Weed Characteristics and Corn (Zea mays L.) Yield

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Sorkheh 1
  • Faezeh Zaefarian 2
  • Mohammad hossain Gharineh 3
1 M.Sc. Student of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Ramin Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Mollasani, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
High degree of evaporation from soil surface (due to high temperature of environment and low relative humidity), poor soil organic content and instability of soil structure are considered indicators of arid regions of Iran. It seems that in a regional management, conservation of plant residues with irrigation operations in the absence of a negative effect on yield can be used as a way to improve the above-mentioned conditions. The management of plant residues has been interesting to researchers in recent decades due to its various effects on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. On the other hand, protective tillage can help to maintain more soil moisture, reduce erosion and less use of agricultural machinery, thereby achieving sustainable agriculture and reducing costs. This research was conducted to investigate the effect of application of wheat residues and green manure along with different tillage systems on corn.
 
Materials and Methods
This experiment was conducted in Shush, Khuzestan Province in 2015-2016, as strip-plot in randomized complete block design with three replications. The main treatment consisted of conventional and minimum tillage methods. The sub-plot treatment applied mulches such as wheat residue, two types of green manure (mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)) and control (no fertilizer application). The characteristics in this research included grain yield, biological yield, number of rows in corn, number of kernels per row, 100 grains weight, and weed growth indices (density, variety and dry weight in two stages: 4 to 6 leaf and maturity of corn).
 
Results
Maximum grain yield of corn was obtained in wheat residue (10399.27 kg ha-1). Also, there was no significant difference in plants treated with green manure of cowpea (10013.49 kg ha-1). The lowest economic yield was seen in control (7382 kg ha-1). Similar to grain yield, the highest biological yield of corn occurred with application of minimum tillage (16139.14 kg ha-1), wheat residue (17170.89) and cowpea green manure (16790.37 kg ha-1). Besides, the best treatment to reduce the number, variety and dry weight of weeds, was achieved with green manure in minimum tillage. Based on the results, the dominant weed of the field in conventional tillage in 4 to 6 leaf stage was physalis (Physalis alkekengi) while it was common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) in the minimum tillage. In maturation of corn, both in conventional tillage and minimum tillage, the dominant weed was physalis, which had the highest dry weight of weeds in every stage.
 
Discussion
Based on the results of this research, application of wheat residues and cowpea green manure combined with minimum tillage can be a suitable way to increase corn yield and reduce weed diversity and biomass in sustainable agriculture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conventional tillage
  • Weed density
  • Wheat residue
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