مقایسه محلول‌پاشی نانوکلات سیلیسیم و ایمیداکلوپراید بر خصوصیات مورفوفیزیولوژیک گل شاخه بریده ژربرا و کنترل سفید بالک (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) در شرایط گلخانه

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم و مهندسی باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد مهاباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مهاباد، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد مهاباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مهاباد، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد مهاباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مهاباد، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
با توجه به خطرات زیست‌محیطی متعدد ناشی از استفاده از آفت‌کش‌ها به‌ویژه در شرایط گلخانه‌ای، این مطالعه به‌منظور مقایسه اثر آفت‌کش ایمیداکلوپراید و نانوکلات سیلیسیم  به‌عنوان یک عنصر شبه ضروری بر کنترل آفت مهم گلخانه‌ای سفید بالک و تغییرات رشدو نموی و کیفی گل تحت تأثیر تیمارها، در سال 1392 در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مهاباد انجام شد. بر همین اساس محلول‌پاشی برگی نانوکلات سیلیسیم (صفر، 50 و 100 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر) و ایمیداکلوپراید بر شاخص‌های رشدی، عملکرد و کیفیت گل شاخه بریده ژربرا رقم "استانزا" و همچنین درصد آلودگی به سفید بالک (تخم‌، پوره، شفیره و حشره بالغ) در قالب آزمایش فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در گلخانه هیدروپونیک انجام شد.بر اساس نتایج، محلول‌پاشی نانوکلات سیلیسیم در مقایسه با ایمیداکلوپراید منجر به افزایش معنی‌دار کیفیت گل شامل قطر گل، طول ساقه گل‌دهنده و عمر گلجایی گردید. همچنین محتوای فنل کل و محتوای کلسیم و سیلیسیم برگ تحت تأثیر نانوکلات سیلیسیم افزایش یافت. درصد جمعیت سفید بالک گل‌های تیمار‌شده با نانوکلات سیلیسیم و ایمیداکلوپراید به‌طور معنی‌داری در مقایسه با شاهد (بدون تیمار محلول‌پاشی) کاهش یافت. اما تیمار ایمیداکلوپراید با وجود کنترل سفید بالک منجر به کاهش قطر گل و محتوای فنل کل گردید. همچنین، ایمیداکلوپراید به‌طور قابل ملاحظه‌ای، موجب افزایش ارتفاع ساقه گل‌دهنده و عدم کنترل پوره در مقایسه با نانوکلات سیلیسیم شد. با توجه به کنترل مثبت و قابل‌توجه سفید بالک تحت تأثیر نانوکلات سیلیسیم و همچنین بهبود کیفیت گل در مقایسه با تیمار ایمیداکلوپراید، استفاده از محلول‌پاشی نانوکلات سیلیسیم قابل توصیه است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Nano-Silicon and Imidacloprid Foliar Application on Morpho-Physiological Characteristics of Gerbera Cut Flower and Its Reaction to Whitefly under Greenhouse Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parisa Ranjbar 1
  • Mohammad Javad Nazarideljou 2
  • Abbas Hoseinzadeh 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Horticulture Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran
3 3- Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex. Hook f.) is known as the world's fourth cut flower and silicon (Si) is considered the second most abundant element (28%) of the Earth's crust.Silicon deposition in most tissues and organs, such as plant cell wall, the space between the cells of the epidermis, roots, leaves, and reproductive organs causes resistance to environmental stresses, insects, and pathogens into the plant. Greenhouse whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) are the most important pests in several crops such as gerbera, which have herbivorous insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts and have 4 to 15 in their generation.
 
Materials and Methods
Considering the numerous environmental risks posed by using pesticides in pest control especially under greenhouse conditions,this study was conducted to compare whiteflies control with imidacloprid pesticide and nano-silicon fertilizer (NSF) as a quasi-essential element in plant nutrition and their impacts on improving resistance to pest. This research was designed as a pot experiment in a soilless greenhouse with polyethylene (PE) coated and controlled environmental conditions. Flower quality components, including flower diameter, flowering stem height and vase life, relative water content (RWC), vase solution uptake, the total phenol content,leaf Ca++ and Si+ content and whiteflies contamination (egg, nymph, pupa, and adult) were evaluated using a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications in a hydroponic greenhouse.
 
Results
The results showed that NSF caused a significant increase of flower diameter, stem length and vase life of flower compared to imidacloprid. Also, NSF increased total phenol content. Leaf calcium and Si concentration in treatment with NSF showed a significant increase compared to other treatments.In addition, the percentage of whitefly population significantly decreased under applying NSF and imidacloprid compared to the control plants. Spraying imidacloprid despite whitefly control led to the reduction of flower diameter and total phenol content. Also, imidacloprid significantly increased flowering stalk height and the contamination of whitefly nymph with respect to NSF.
 
Discussion
According to the results of the present research, foliar application of NSF not only reduced the environmental impact caused by using chemical pesticides but also led to the control of whiteflies population and improved the quality of gerbera cut flower. Therefore, we recommend the use of NSF as a fertilizer-medicine in greenhouse cultivation of gerbera 'Stanza'.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environment pollution
  • Non-essential element
  • Pesticides
  • Soilless culture
  • Vase life
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