ارزیابی میزان اثربخشی غلظت عناصر غذایی آهن و روی در گل در زمان گل‌دهی کامل به برخی پارامترهای برگی، صفات رشد و عملکرد دانهال‌های "به"(Cydonia oblonga Mill.) ایران تحت شرایط خاک‌های آهکی

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، پژوهشکده میوه‌های معتدله و سردسیری‌، مؤسسه علوم باغبانی و سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
به ‌منظور ارزیابی میزان اثربخشی غلظت عناصر آهن و روی در گل (در زمان گل‌دهی کامل) به ‌برخی پارامترهای برگی (جذب برگی عناصر غذایی ازت، فسفر، پتاسیم، کلسیم، منیزیم، آهن، روی و بور و سطح و کلروفیل برگ)، صفات رشد (قطر و ارتفاع تنه)، تعداد گل و میوه/دانهال و مقدار محصول دانهال‌های " به" (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) ایران تحت شرایط خاک‌های آهکی آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد‌شده (کرت فرعی، 28 دانهال "به" و کرت اصلی، سطوح مختلف آهک در خاک (کربنات کلسیم معادل 13، 14، 15، 16 و 18 درصد) در 3 تکرار و در هر کرت با 4 اصله در باغ تحقیقاتی کمال‌آباد/کرج در سال‌های 1395 و 1396 انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که در بین تمام صفات مورد بررسی دانهال‌های "به"، تنها غلظت روی در گل با افزایش مقدار کربنات کلسیم معادل خاک یک رگرسیون منفی و معنی‌دار (در سطح احتمال یک درصد) بوده است. این در حالی است که همزمان غلظت روی در گل با مقدار غلظت آهن در گل (در سطح احتمال یک درصد) و با ازت برگ (در سطح احتمال پنج درصد) در همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌دار و با تعداد کل گل/دانهال (در سطح احتمال یک درصد) و همچنین با قطر تنه (در سطح احتمال پنج درصد) در همبستگی منفی و معنی‌داری بوده است. بنابراین، جهت گروه‌بندی میزان مقاومت دانهال‌های "به" به افزایش مقدار کربنات کلسیم معادل خاک از تجزیه خوشه‌ای به روش وارد ward)) و بر اساسپنجصفتمنتخب اثربخش شامل غلظت روی و آهن در گل، جذب برگی ازت، تعداد کل گل/دانهال و قطر تنه استفاده گردید. بدین ترتیب دانهال‌های "به" درسه گروهقرارگرفتند. با توجه به محاسبات آماری مختلف در این پژوهش، در مرحله اول دانهال‌های گروه دوم (شاملUnknown; NB3; AS2; KVD4; NB2; PK2;ET1; ASM3; ASP1) و در مرحله بعدی دانهال‌های گروه سوم (SVS2; NB4; KVD1; ASM2; Oghafespehan; ASM1) به‌عنوان دانهال‌های مقاوم به خاک‌هایی با مقدار کربنات کلسیم معادل خاک بالا (در دامنه‌ای بین 14 تا 18 درصد) و بالاخره دانهال‌های گروه یک دندروگرام (KVD3;Moghavem2;SVS1;KVD2;PH2;ASP2;Sahelborjmoghavem;Moghavem1; SHA1;Gardandar;KM1;Khosro;Behtorsh;) گروه حساس ارزیابی شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Concentration of Iron and Zinc Elements in Flower at Full Bloom to Some Leaf Parameters, Growth Traits and Yield of Quince Cultivars Seedlings (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) From Iran Grown in Calcareous Soils

نویسنده [English]

  • Mitra Mirabdulbaghi
Member of scientific board , Horticultural Science Research Institute (HSRI), Kara j
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
The objective of this research was to find the relationship between iron and zinc nutrient in flowers at full bloom and the amount of calcium carbonate equivalent in soil and the effectiveness on the leaf parameters {leaf-N, -P, -K, -Mg, Ca, -Fe, -Zn and leaf-B content; leaf area; chlorophyll (SPAD-Value); Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F0:minimum fluorescence; FM: maximum; fluorescence and value of photochemical capacity of photosystem 2 (FV/FM)}, growth traits (shoot length and diameter of shoot), number of flowers at full bloom/tree, number of fruits/trees and yield of quince cultivars seedlings (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) from Iran.
 
Materials and Methods
The experiment was laid out in a RCBD with split plot arrangement at Kamalabad Research Station in Karaj/Iran.The main plot treatments included calcium carbonate equivalent in soil (13%, 14%, 15%, 16% and 18%) and sub plot included 28 quince cultivars seedlings in Horticulture Research Station of Kamalabad, Karaj during 2016 and 2017. In the present study, a test was carried out using Pearson’s regression and correlation coefficients at P ≤ 0.05 to evaluate the relationships among all studied parameters as well as all 20 parameters with the amount of calcium carbonate equivalent in soil. Cluster analysis (based on Ward’s method) was derived only from traits that were related to the increase of soil lime (zn-, Fe- nutrient in flowers and number of flowers/trees at full bloom, leaf-N content and diameter of shoot). A test for evaluating the relationships between studied parameters by using Pearson’s correlation coefficients at P ≤ 0.05 was the other statistical analysis included in this research
Results
After numerous calculations in this research, in the first step, quince cultivars seedlings of the second group (including, Unknown, NB3, AS2, KVD4, NB2, PK2, ET1, ASM3, ASP1) and for the second step, quince cultivars seedlings of the third group (SVS2, NB4, KVD1, ASM2, Oghafespehan, ASM1) of resistant groups and quince cultivars seedlings of the first group (KVD3, Moghavem2, SVS1, KVD2, PH2, ASP2, Sahelborjmoghavem, Moghavem1, SHA1, Gardandar, KM1, Khosro, Behtorsh(of dendrograms of sensitive to high amounts of calcium carbonate equivalent to soil (14-18 %) were evaluated.
Discussion
Soils are called calcareous with more than 10% calcium carbonate (Henin, 1977). However, the amount of lime for more than 60% of Iranian soils is variable in a range between 10 to 44% (Anonymus, 1991). Lime-induced iron chlorosis is the most important problem of the quince production in Iran. One of the best alternatives to prevent lime-induced iron chlorosis problems is the use of tolerant plant species or genotypes. Our hypothesis in this study was that flowering indices were highly efficient for estimating the resistance of fruit trees to soil lime, which has also been confirmed by many researchers )Sanz et al., 1993 and 1995 and Adane, 2015). The results of this two-year study were in agreement with the results of the mentioned researchers: the flower indices have the potential to be used for evaluating the tolerance of selected quince genotypes when grown in different soil lime levels
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Quince cultivars seedlings
  • iron and zinc elements in flower at full bloom resistance
  • calcium carbonate equivalent
References
Abadia, J., Tagliavini, M., Grasa, R., Belkhodia, R., Abadia, A., Sanz. M., Faria, E. A., Tsi pouridis, C. and Marangoni, B. (2000). Using the flower Fe concentration for estimating chlorosis status in fruit tree orchards. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 23(11-12), 2023-2033.
Abdollahi, H. and Ghahremani, Z. (2011). The Role of chloroplasts in the interaction between Erwiniaamylovora and host plants. Acta Horticulturae, 896(28), 215-221.
Abdollahi, H., Alipour, M., Khorramdel Azad, M., Ghasemi, A., Adli, M., Atashkar, D., Akbari, M. and Nasiri, J. (2013). Establishment and primary evaluation of quince germplasm collection from various regions of Iran. Acta Horticulturae, 976(25), 199-206.
Alipour, M., Abdollahi, H., Abdousi, V., Ghasemi, A. A., Adli, M. and Mohamadi, M. (2014). Evaluation of vegetative and reproductive characteristics and distinctness of some quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) genotypes from different regions of Iran. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, 30(1), 507-529.
[In Farsi]
Anonymous. (1992). Soil science reports from Damavand area (Tehran province). Tehran: Overview, Soil and Water Research institute.
Anonymous. (1993). An introduction to flourescence measurements with the plant efficiency analyzer. England: Hansatech instruments Ltd.
Anonymous. (2018). Abstract of some of the top research achievements of the agricultural research, education and promotion organization in Iran. Retrieved fromhttp/www.hsri.ac.ir/fa-IR/DouranPortal.
Azimi Gandomani, M., Dehdari, A., Faraji, H., Movahhedi Dehnavi, M. and Alinaghizadeh, M. (2010). Evaluation of chlorophyll fluorescence and physiological characteristics of spring rapeseed (Brassica rapa L.) cultivars under salt stress. Plant Productions, 35(4), 1-16. [In Farsi]
Bergmann, W. (1992). Nutritional disorders of plants. Jena, Germany: Gustav Fischer Verlag.
Fallahi, S. (1998). Detailed studies of soil of horticulture experience station of Kamalabad of Karaj in Iran. Water Research institute, Tehran, Iran. [In Farsi]
Imami, A. (1996). Plant analysis method. Soil and Water Research Institute, 2(982), 128-128. [In Farsi]
Koshesh-Saba, M. and Moradi, S. (2015). Investigating physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of some commercial peach cultivars fruit. Plant Productions, 38(4), 81-93. [In Farsi]
Manee, A. (1994). Pear and quinces growing. Tehran: Iran Technical Publishing Co. [In Farsi]
Mokhtarian, A., Asgharzadeh, A., Ganji Moghaddam, E., Khavari Khorasani, S. and Hamidi, H. (2016). Investigation of genetic diversity of razavikhorasan province local apple (Maluscommunis L.) genotypes using morphological and pomological characters. Plant Productions, 39(1), 65-74. [In Farsi]
Montanes, M., Val, L. Betrana, J., Mongers, J., Moreno, E. and Monotories, L. (1997). Floral analysis fresh and dry weight of flowers from different fruit specices. Acta Horticulturae, 448, 233-240.
Moradi, S., Koushesh Saba, M., Mozafari, A. A. and Abdollahi, H. (2017). Physical and biochemical changes of Some Iranian Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill) genotypes during cold storage. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 19(2), 377-388.
Pestana, M., Beja, P., Correia1, P. J., Devarennes, A. and Faria, E. A. (2005). Relationships between nutrient composition of flowers and fruit quality in orange trees grown in calcareous soil. Tree Physiology, 25(6), 761-767.
Pestana, M., Correia1, P. J., Devarennes, A., Abadia, J. and Faria, E. A. (2004). The use of floral analysis to diagnose the nutritional status of oranges trees. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 24(12), 1913-1923.
Rodger, C. E. and Campbell, C. S. (2002). The origin of the apple subfamily (Maloideae; Rosaceae) is clarified by DNA sequence data from duplicated GBSSI genes. American Journal of Botany, 89(9), 1478-1484.
Sabeti, H. (1994). Trees and shrubs of Iran. Yazd: Yazd University Publication. [In Farsi]
Sajedi, M., Esna-Ashari, M., Jafari, M. and Aslmoshtaghi, E. (2017). Physiological, morphological and biochemical characteristics of four edible fig and two Capri fig cultivars in response to drought stress. Plant Productions, 40(3), 101-112. [In Farsi]
Sanz, M. and Montanes, L. (1995). Floral analysis: A novel approach for the prognosis of iron deficiency in pear (Pyrus communis L.) and peach (Prunus persical L. Batsch): Iron nutrition in soils and plants. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Sanz, M., Carrera, M. and Montanes, L. (1993). El estado nutricional Del peral: Possibilidad del diagnostico floral. Hortofruticultura, 10(1), 60-62.
Srivastava, K. K., Jabeen, A., Das, B. and Sharma, A. K. (2005). Genetic variability of quince (Cydoniaoblonga) in Kashmir valleyIndian. Journal of Agricultural Science, 75(11), 766-768.
Wild, A. (Ed). (1988). Russell's soil conditions and plant growth. Harlow, UK: Longman Scientific &Technical.
Yamamoto, T., Kimura, T., Soejima, J., Sanada, T., Ban, Y. and Hayashi, T. (2004). Identification of quince varieties using SSR markers developed from pear and apple. Breeding Science, 54(3), 239-244.
Zarinnagsh, M. (1989). Soil fertility and production. Tehran: Institute of Publication and Printing of Tehran University. [In Farsi]
 
 © 2020 by the authors. Licensee SCU, Ahvaz, Iran. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0 license) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/)