عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Objectives
Olive (Olea europaea) is compatible with Mediterranean and Mediterranean-like climates. Due to its high adaptability to different environmental conditions, this plant has been able to adapt well to the varied climates in the world. This plant was extensively cultivated in some regions of Iran, so that some cultivars do not have any identification Therefore; a genotype/variety may be classified under several names and several varieties under a single name. Also, lack of garden information, re-naming of imported cultivars and the use of non-standard morphological traits for naming led to important problems in pomology industry. Therefore, it is necessary and inevitable to use strategies to eliminate these ambiguities and to accurately identify different genotypes of olives in Iran. Therefore, the first step in identifying the genotype is their morphological identification. Therefore, a research was conducted to investigate the genetic diversity and the relationship between the olive trees cultivated in some of the cities of Khuzestan province through the study of morphological traits.
Materials and methods
This research was conducted in the cities of Indica, Baghmalek, Izeh and Lali in 2015-2016. Fifty genotypes were collected from the orchards of the Andika, Baghmalek, Izeh and, Lali. The morphological traits of fruit, stone and leaf were measured according to the IOOC guidelines and the guidelines provided by the Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute for Research (2007). The variance analysis of the traits was performed using SAS 9.1 software as nested design. Cluster analysis was used for determination of degree of relationship between genotypes. The main components and biplot analysis were used to reduce the number of variables.
The results showed that there was a wide range of morphological variations among genotypes. Factor and principal components analysis showed that 12 components could justify 87.7% of variation among genotypes. The first component explained 13.42% of the total variance. In this factor, fruit length (0.63), fruit width (0.61), fruit weight (0.61) , shape of stone (-0.7), stone width (0.66), stone length( -0.44), leaf length (0.5) had a high coefficient. Also, traits such as length and width of fruit, stone and leaf, stone and leaf shape, curvature of leaf, stone number grooves, Fruit base in position A, stone weight, stone Surface in position B, Stone Symmetry in position A, Fruit Size of lenticels,Stone Distribution of grooves,Stone Symmetry in position B were the most important traits in genotyping and grouping of the cities studied. Based on the results of cluster analysis, the genotypes were divided into six distinct groups.
In general, it was found that most of the genotypes in Baghmalek city are located in a separate cluster, while a number of genotypes in Lali, Izeh and Indica are located in a single cluster, which can be due to differences in atmospheric and different precipitation rates. Because the cities of Izeh, Lali, and Indica have lower temperatures and more atmospheric precipitation compared to Bagmalek city. This important can cause the genotypes of these cities to be different compared to Baghmalek city.