تأثیر شوک حرارتی، عمق دفن و جایگاه بذر بر جوانه‌زنی بذور هترومورفیسم ماستونک (Torilis arvensis)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آگرواکولوژی، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
علف‌های هرز یکی از فاکتورهای کاهش عملکرد محصولات هستند. علف ‌‌هرز ماستونکدو شکل بذر کرک‌دار و بدون کرک تولید می‌کند که اطلاعات کمی در ارتباط با رفتار جوانه‌زنی آن‌ها وجود دارد. هدف از مطالعه‌ حاضر بررسی اثر جایگاه بذر، عمق دفن، شوک حرارتی و چندشکلی بذر بر درصد جوانه‌زنی علف ‌‌هرز ماستونکاست. آزمایش‌ها به‌صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی طی سال‌های 1395-1396 اجرا شدند. در آزمایش اول فاکتورها شامل جایگاه بذر (‌بالا، وسط و پایین بوته)، دما (20 و 25 درجه سانتی‌گراد) و شکل بذر (کرک‌دار و بدون کرک) بود. فاکتورها در آزمایش دوم شامل شوک حرارتی (100، 150 و 200 درجه سانتی‌گراد)، عمق دفن بذر (صفر، 2 و 4 سانتی‌متر) و شکل بذر (کرک‌دار و بدون کرک) بود. نتایج نشان داد که عمق دفن، دما، و شکل بذر اثر معنی‌داری بر درصد جوانه‌زنی بذر ماستونک دارد. در آزمایش اول با افزایش دما از 20 به 25 درجه سانتی‌گراد درصد جوانه‌زنی بذر کاهش نشان داد و در دمای 20 درجه سانتی‌گراد بیش‌ترین درصد جوانه‌زنی (33/73 درصد) مشاهده شد. در آزمایش دوم عمق دفن تأثیر مثبتی بر جوانه‌زنی بذر ماستونک داشت و با افزایش عمق دفن درصد جوانه‌زنی بذر افزایش نشان داد. اثر متقابل شوک حرارتی و عمق دفن نشان داد که با افزایش عمق دفن و دما درصد جوانه‌زنی افزایش می‌یابد. در هر دو شکل بذر با افزایش عمق دفن درصد جوانه‌زنی افزایش نشان داد و در بیش‌ترین عمق دفن (4 سانتی‌متر)، بذور بدون کرک بیش‌ترین درصد جوانه‌زنی (14/58 درصد) را داشت و شکل بذر نیز بر درصد جوانه‌زنی بذور تأثیر معنی‌داری داشت. با وجود بزرگ‌تر بودن اندازه بذرور کرک‌دار، بیش‌ترین درصد جوانه‌زنی در بذر بدون کرک مشاهده شد. نتایج تحقیق حاضر نشان داد که این علف ‌هرز قادر به جوانه‌زنی در دامنه گسترده‌ای از شرایط محیطی است. با افزایش عمق دفن درصد جوانه‌زنی علف ‌هرز ماستونک افزایش نشان داد. دمای بهینه برای جوانه‌زنی بذر ماستونک دمای 20 درجه‌ سانتی‌گراد است. شکل بذر بر درصد جوانه‌زنی ماستونک تأثیرگذار بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Thermal Shock, Burial Depth and Seed Position on Germination of eeds of Heteromorphism Hedge Parsley (Torilis arvenis)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rezvan Payamani 1
  • Iraj Nosratti 2
  • Masoomeh Amerian 3
1 M.Sc. Student of Agroecology, Faculty of Science and Agriculture Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Associate Professor. Department of Production Engineering and Plant Genetics, Faculty of Science and Agriculture Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Production Engineering and Plant Genetics, Faculty of Science and Agriculture Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Weeds are one of the most important factors that affect and reduce the yield of crops. Hedge parsley produces two shapes of seeds, fluffy and non-fluffy, of their germination behavior little information is available. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of seed position, burial depth, thermal shock and seed polymorphism on germination percentage of hedge parsley.
 
Materials and Methods
The experiments were conducted based on factorial experiment in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications at campus of agriculture and natural resources during years 2016-2017. In the first experiment, the factors included seed position (high, middle and low plants), temperature (20 and 25 C°) and seed shape (fluffy and non-fluffy). In the second experiment, the factors were thermal shock (100, 150 and 200 C°), burial depth (0, 2 and 4 cm) and seed shape (fluffy and non-fluffy).
 
Results
In the first experiment, with increasing temperature from 20 to 25 C° germination percentage decreased and at 20 C° the highest germination percentage (73.33%) was observed. Seed shape also affected seed germination percentages. In the second experiment, the burial depth had a positive effect on seed germination and with increasing burial depth, seed germination percentage increased. Interaction of thermal shock and burial depth showed that increasing burial depth and temperature increased the percentage of germination (57.14%). In both shapes of seeds, germination percentage increased with increasing burial depth and the highest germination percentage was observed in the maximum burial depth (4 cm).
 
Discussion
The results of this study showed that this weed is capable of germination in a wide range of environmental conditions. Germination percentage of hedge parsley increased with increasing burial depth. The optimum temperature for seed germination of hedge parsley is 20 C°. Seed shape was affected on seed germination percentage of hedge parsley.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Apiaceae
  • Germination percentage
  • Seed Shape
  • Temperature and weed
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