ارزیابی اثر تغذیه تلفیقی بر عملکرد کمی و درصد اسانس گیاه دارویی بادرنجبویه (Melissa officinalis)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
یکــی از نیازهــای مهــم در برنامه‌ریزی زراعی به‌منظور حصول عملکرد بالا و کیفیت مطلوب به‌ویژه در گیاهان دارویی ارزیابی سیســتم‌های مختلف تغذیه گیاه اســت. با روش صحیح افزایش حاصلخیزی خاک و تغذیه گیاه می‌توان ضمن حفظ محیط‌زیســت، کاهش فرســایش و حفظ تنوع‌زیستی، کارآیی نهاده‌ها را افزایش داد. این پژوهش با هدف ارتقای عملکرد کمی و کیفی گیاه بادرنجبویه با مصرف کودهای زیستی نظیر قارچ میکوریزا، کود فسفاته زیستی و ورمی‌کمپوست مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.آزمایش در  بهار و تابستان 1395 در مزرعه تحت پوشش سازمان جهاد کشاورزی استان گیلان واقع در بخش خشک‌بیجار از توابع شهرستان رشت اجرا شد. در این تحقیق آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل سه عاملی شامل قارچ میکوریزا (M) در دو سطح (عدم تلقیح = M1 و تلقیح = M2)، عامل کود فسفات زیستی (P) در سه سطح (صفر =P1، 50 = P2 و 100 = P3 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و ورمی‌کمپوست (V) در سه سطح (صفر =V1 ، 5= V2 و 10 =V3 تن در هکتار) در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با هجده تیمار و در سه تکرار انجام شد. همچنین، یک کرت به‌عنوان شاهد کود شیمیایی (مصرف کود شیمیایی اوره 90 کیلوگرم در هکتار، سوپر‌فسفات‌تریپل 90 کیلوگرم در هکتار و سولفات‌پتاسیم 90 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در هر تکرار قرار داده شد و مقایسه آن با تیمارهای میکوریزا، کود فسفات زیستی و ورمی‌کمپوست نیز در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در نظرگرفته شد. بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش، بیشترین، عملکرد برگ، درصد اسانس، عملکرد زیستی، کلروفیل کل و کاروتنوئید در تلقیح با میکوریزا حاصل شد. کود فسفات زیستی در تیمار 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار در کل صفات اندازه‌گیری شده بهترین نتیجه را داشت. همچنین، بهترین نتیجه در استفاده از 10 تن ورمی‌کمپوست در هکتار در عملکرد بیولوژیک (2/4808 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، درصد اسانس (13/0) و کلروفیل کل (54/1 میلی‌گرم در گرم برگ تازه) به‌دست آمد. اثرات متقابل هم افزایی مثبت نیز روی برخی صفات مذکور مشاهده گردید که می‌توان به اثر متقابل بین تلقیح میکوریزا و فسفات زیستی بر عملکرد برگ، همچنین هم‌افزایی میکوریزا و ورمی‌کمپوست در شاخص عملکرد زیستی اشاره کرد. طبق نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش، تیمار تلقیح با میکوریزا، مصرف 100 کیلوگرم فسفات زیستی و 10 تن ورمی‌کمپوست درهکتار، می‌تواند شرایط مناسبی را جهت دستیابی به بیشترین عملکرد کمی (5290 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و کیفی (26/0 درصد اسانس) در گیاه بادرنجبویه در یک سیستم زراعی پایدار فراهم آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Effect of Integrated Nutrition on Quantitative Yield and Essential Oil Percentage of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad reza Mirzajani 1
  • Majid Majidian 2
  • Gholam reza Mohsenabadi 3
1 M.Sc. student of Agronomy, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Agronomy, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Agronomy, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
An important requirement of agronomic planning is to evaluate different plant nutrition systems in order to achieve high yield and quality, especially in medicinal plants. With the correct method of increasing soil fertilization and plant nutrition, it is possible to reduce the erosion and conservation of biodiversity, preserve the environment, and increase the efficiency of inputs. This research was carried out with the aim of improving the quantitative and qualitative performance of lemon balm with bio fertilizers such as mycorrhiza fungi, biophosphate fertilizer, and vermicompost.
 
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted in spring and summer of 2016 in a field covered by Agriculture Jihad of Guilan, located in Khoshkabijar District of Rasht, Iran. In this research, the experiment was conducted considering three factors: factorial contains mycorrhizal inoculation (M1 = non-inoculated and M2 = inoculated), phosphate biofertilizers (P1 = 0, P2 = 50 and P3 = 100 kg ha-1) and vermicompost (V1 = 0, V2 = 5 and V3 = 10 tons ha-1) layout based on a randomized complete block design with 18 treatments and three replications. Also, one plot was allocated to control in each replication and only chemical fertilizers (use of 90 kg ha-1 of fertilizer of urea, triple super phosphate 90 kg ha-1 and potassium sulfate 90 kg ha-1) and data obtained from control plot, mycorrhizal, phosphate biofertilizers, and vermicompost were used based on a randomized complete block.
 
Results
According to the results of this experiment, the highest number of leaf yield, essential oil percentage, biological yield, essential oil yield, total chlorophyll and carotenoids in inoculation with mycorrhiza was obtained. The application of 100 kg of phosphate biofertilizers had a significant effect on all measured biofertilizers. Fertilizer treatment of 100 kg ha-1 had the best result in all measured traits. Also, the best result was obtained with the use of 10 tons of vermicompost per hectare in biological yield (4808.2 kg ha-1), essential oil (0.13%), and total chlorophyll (1.54 mg gr-1FW). There were positive and synergic interactions between factors. For example, positive interaction between inoculation of mycorrhiza and phosphate biofertilizers on leaf yield and essential oil yield, and synergic interaction between mycorrhiza and vermicompost on biological yield were obsereved.
 
Discussion
The results of this study show that the treatment of inoculums with mycorrhiza, consumption of 100 kg of phosphate biofertilizers and 10 tons of vermicompost per hectare could provide the best situation to achieve the highest quantitative (5290 kg ha-1) and qualitative yield (0.26% essential oil) of lemon balm in a sustainable agricultural system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll
  • Mycorrhiza
  • Phosphate biofertilizers
  • Vermicompost
References

Antunes, P. M., Miller, J., Carvalho, L. M., Klironomos, J. N. and Newman, J. A. (2008). Even after death the endophytic fungus of schedonorusphoenix reduces the arbuscular mycorrhizas of other plants. Functional Ecology, 22(5), 912-918.

Arancon, N. Q., Edwards, C. A., Bierman, P., Welch, C. and Metzger, J. D. (2004). Influences of vermicomposts on field strawberries: Effects on growth and yields. Bioresource Technology, 93(2), 145-153.

Bastami, A. and Majidian, M. (2015). Effects of mycorrhizal, phosphatic biofertilizer on photosynthetic pigments and yield in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Plant Productions, 38(4), 49-60. [In Farsi]

Bredemeier, C. (2005). Laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence sensing as a tool for site-specific nitrogen fertilizer evaluation under controlled environmental and field conditions in wheat and maize. Ph.D. Thesis, Technical University, Munich.

Chowdhury, S. R., Tandon, P. K. and Chowdhury, A. R. (2010). Chemical composition of the essential oil of cymbopogon flexuosus (steud) wats. Growing in kumaon region. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 13(5), 588-593.

Darzi, M.T. (2007). Effect of biofertilizers application on qualitative and quantitative yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) in order to reach to a sustainable agroecosystem. Thesis Ph.D., Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran.

Doan, T., Henrydes, T., Tureaux, T. and Rumpel, C. (2015). Impact of compost, vermicompost and biochar on soil fertility, maize yield and soil erosion in northern Vietnam, a three year mesocosm experiment. Science of the Total Environment, 51(4), 147-154.

Engel, R., Szabo, K., Abranko, L., Rendes, K., Fuzy, A. and Takacs, T. (2016). Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and polyphenol profile of marjoram, lemon balm, and marigold. Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 64(19), 3733-3742

Giri, B., Kapoor, R. and Mukerji, K. G. (2002). VA Mycorrhizal techniques/vam technology in establishment of plants under salinity stress condition. Techniques in Mycorrhizal Studies, 16, 313-327.

Goldani, M. and Kamali, M. (2016). Evaluation of culture media including vermicompost, compost and manure under drought stress in Iranian petunia (Petunia hybrida). Plant Productions, 39(3), 91-100.

Gupta, M. L, Prasad, A., Ram, M. and Kumar, S. (2002). Effect of the Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus glomus fasiculatum on the essential oil yield related characters and nutrient acquisitionin the crops of different cultivars of menthol mint (Mentha Arvensis) under field conditions. Bioresource Technology, 81(1), 77-79.

Hassan, F. A. S. (2009). Response of hibiscus sabdariffa plant to some biofertilization treatments. Annals Agricultur Science, 54(2), 437-445.

Kapoor, R., Giri, B. and Mukerji, K. G. (2002). Mycorrhization of coriander (Coriandrum sativum l.) to enhance the concentration and quality of essential oil. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82(4), 339-342.

Khoshkhoy, M., Tafazoli, A., Rahemi, M. and Sheibani, B. (2004). Principles of agnosticism. Shiraz: Shiraz University Press. [In Farsi]
Kumar, V. and Singh, K.P. (2001). Enriching vermicompost by nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Bioresource Technology, 76(2), 173-175.

Li, T., Lin, G., Zhang, X., Chen, Y., Zhang, S. and Chen, B. (2014). Relative importance of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (rhizophagus intraradices) and root hairs in plant drought tolerance. Mycorrhiza, 24(8), 595-602.

Mafakheri, S. (2017). Effect of some organic and chemical fertilizer on morphological and biochemical factors of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Plant Productions, 40(3), 27-41. [In Farsi]

Modafeh Behzadi, N., Rezvani Moghaddam, P. and Jahan, M. (2017). Investigating the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yield of Indigofera tinctoria L. in the Bam area. Iranian Crop Research, 16(1), 46-54. [In Farsi]
Nemati, A., Golchin, A. and Sharti, H. B. (2015). Investigating the effects of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of tomato plants in a soil contaminated with cadmium. Journal of Soil Research, 29(1), 23-36. [In Farsi]
Omidbaigi, R. (2011). Approaches to production and processing of medicinal plants. Mashhad: Astan Gods Razavi (Beh Nashr Press). [In Farsi]

Oteino, N., Lally, D., Kiwanuka, S., Lloyd, A., Ryan, D., Germaine, K. and Dowling, N. (2015). Plant growth promotion induced by phosphate solubilizing endophytic pseudomonas isolates. Frontiers Microbiology, 6(2), 745-749.

Peterson, R. L., Massicotte, H. B. and Melville, L. H. (2004). Mycorrhizas: Anatomy and cell biology.
Wallingford, Oxfordshire: Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International Publishing.

Pise, N. M. and Sabale, A. B. (2010). Effect of seaweed concentrates on the growth and biochemical constituents of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Journal of Phytology, 2(4), 50-56.

Saderi, S. Z., Abrishamchi, P., Ganjeali, A. and Radjabian, T. (2017). Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth traits of Melissa officinalis L. 5th National Conference of Iranian Society of Plant Physiology, Zanjan University, Zanjan. [In Farsi]

Shahab, S., Ahmed, N. and Khan, N. S. (2009). Indole acetic acid production and enhanced plant growth. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4(1), 1312-1316.

Tahami, S. M. K. (2010). Evaluation of the effects of organic, biological and chemical fertilizer on yield, yield components and essential of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). M.Sc. Thesis, Ferdowsi of Mashhad University, Mashhad. [In Farsi]

Yanik, M. and Gurbuz, B. (2014). Chemical diversity in essential oil compositions of leaf, herb and flower in llemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Natural Science, 1(2), 210-214.
Zargari, A. (2015). Medicinal plants (Vol. 3). Tehran: Tehran University Press. [In Farsi]

Zhang, Y., Chen, Z., Pinyopusarerk, K. and Bush, D. (2017). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhanced growth of magnolia macclurei (dandy) figlar seedlings grown under glasshouse conditions.‏ Forest Science, 63(4), 441-448.

 

 © 2019 by the authors. Licensee SCU, Ahvaz, Iran. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0 license) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/)