تأثیر سطوح مختلف کود محرک رشد حاوی عصاره جلبک و وزن بنه مادری بر فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی و مواد مؤثره زعفران

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد علوم باغبانی-‌گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه و پژوهشگر پژوهشکده زعفران تربت‌حیدریه، تربت‌حیدریه‌، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
به ‌منظور بررسی تأثیر کود محرک رشد و وزن بنه مادری بر فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی و محتوای مواد مؤثره زعفران sativus L.)(Crocusآزمایشی در سال زراعی 96- 1395 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل کود محرک رشد حاوی 16 درصد عصاره جلبک با مقادیر صفر، 15 و 30 لیتر در هکتار به‌صورت غوطه‌وری بنه و مصرف در آب آبیاری) و وزن بنه مادری (4- 1/0، 8- 1/4 و12- 1/8 گرم) بودند.کاربرد کود زیستی اثر معنی‌داری بر عملکرد گلبرگ، مقدار کاروتنوئید و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی گلبرگ (محتوای آنتی‌اکسیدان کل و آنتوسیانین) و مواد مؤثره کلاله (پیکروکروسین، سافرانال و کروسین) داشت. بیشترین مقدار عملکرد گلبرگ (027/0 گرم در بوته)، محتوای کاروتنوئید (83/1 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر)، آنتوسیانین (49/24 میلی‌گرم در صد گرم)، آنتی‌اکسیدانت (80/29 درصد)، سافرانال، کروسینو پیکروکروسین از تیمار مصرف 30 لیتر در هکتار کود زیستی به‌دست‌آمد؛ اما در بیشتر صفات تفاوت معنی‌داری بین دو سطح 15 و 30 لیتر در هکتار کود محرک زیستی مشاهده نشد. کمترین مقادیر عملکرد گلبرگ خشک (023/0 گرم در بوته)، کارتنوئید (04/1 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر)، آنتوسیانین (29/22 میلی‌گرم در صد گرم)، آنتی‌اکسیدانت (54/25 درصد)، سافرانال، کروسین و پیکروکروسین نیز از تیمار شاهد به‌دست‌آمد. وزن بنه مادری بر فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی، مقدار آنتوسیانین و کاروتنوئید گلبرگ و میزان سافرانال کلاله تأثیر معنی‌داری داشت و با افزایش وزن بنه، مقدار این صفات افزایش پیدا کرد. اثر متقابل کود محرک زیستی و وزن بنه مادری بر صفات مورد مطالعه معنی‌دار نبود. در مجموع، مصرف کود محرک زیستیِ تکامین آلگا و همچنین کاربرد بنه‌های مادری با وزن 12-1/8 گرم به بهبود خصوصیات کیفی زعفران منجر شد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Effects of Growth Promoting Fertilizer Containing Seaweed Extract and Mother Corm Weight on Antioxidant Activity and Stigma Quality of Saffron

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sakineh Khandan Deh-Arbab 1
  • Mohammad Hossein Aminifard 2
  • Hamid-Reza Fallahi 3
  • Hamed Kaveh 4
1 M.Sc. Student of Horticultural Science- Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Production, University of Torbat Heydarieh and Research Expert of Saffron Institute Torbat Heydarieh, Torbat Heydarieh, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Algae are usually aquatic photosynthetic organisms that sequester CO2 in their biomass. They are rich in organic matter and nutrients, and thereby can be used in agriculture as an organic fertilizer. Their application will lead to the production of healthy and qualitative foods. To the best of our knowledge, so far the effect of application of marine algae has not been evaluated on saffron qualitative parameters. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of algae in different levels of mother corm weight on qualitative indices of petals and stigmas in saffron.
 
Materials and Methods
To investigate the effect of growth promoting fertilizer containing seaweed extract and mother corm weight on qualitative parameters in petals and stigmas of saffron (Crocus sativus L.), an experiment was conducted at Research Field of College of Agriculture at University of Birjand in 2017. The experimental factors included seaweed extract (0, 15 and 30 l ha-1) and corm weight [0.1-4 (small), 4.1-8 (medium) and 8.1-12g (large-sized)], which were tested in a RCBD with three replications.
 
Results
The use of algae extract had a significant effect on the petal yield, carotenoid content and antioxidant activity of petals (antioxidant and anthocyanin content) and quality of stigma (picrocrocin, safranal and crocin content). The highest amounts of dry petal yield (0.027 g plant-1), carotenoid content (1.83 mg g-1 FW), anthocyanin (24.49 mg 100g-1 DW), antioxidant (29.80%), safranal (42.43), crocin (198.78) and picrocrocin (74.57) were obtained when seaweed extract was used at the rate of 30 l ha-1. However, no significant difference was found between the two levels of algae extract in terms of all mentioned parameters. The lowest values of petal yield (0.023 g plant-1), carotenoid (1.04 mg g-1 FW), anthocyanin (22.29 mg .100 g DW), antioxidant (25.54%), safranal (40.61 λ), crocin (176.64 λ ), and picrocrocin (72.60 λ ) were obtained from control treatment. Mother corm weight also exerted a significant effect on antioxidant activity, petals anthocyanin content and safranal content in stigma and the highest of them were gained when large-sized mother corms were planted. The interaction effect of experimental factors was not significant on measured parameters.
 
Discussion
Overall, the results of this study indicated the beneficial effects of seaweed extract on improving biochemical traits and effective ingredients, which is appropriate for organic production of saffron. The positive role of algae on plants is related to providing micro- and macro-nutrient as well as production of biologically active biotical substances against plant-infecting pathogens. In addition, they have a significant role in improving soil physical and chemical properties, which lead to better growth and development of the plants. Better quality of saffron produced from larger mother corms may also be related to more nutrient reservoir in such corms.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • anthocyanin
  • Carotenoid
  • Crocin
  • petal
  • picrocrocin
  • safranal
  • stigma
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