باززایی درون شیشه‌ای گیاه زعفران زینتی (Crocus vernus L.) با استفاده از تنظیم‌کننده‌های رشد گیاهی

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران

2 استاد تمام گروه باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
زعفران زینتی از تیره زنبقیان (Iridaceae)یکی از مهم‌ترین گیاهان پیازی زینتی است. تکثیر این گیاه به‌وسیله پداژه به دلیل انتقال انواع بیماری‌های قارچی و باکتریائی و نیز دوره خفتگی طولانی 4 تا 5 ماهه، از نظر تجاری مقرون به‌صرفه نمی‌باشد. بنابراین تکثیر زعفران زینتی از طریق کشت درون شیشه‌ای راهکار مناسبی برای تکثیر تجاری آن است. به منظور ریزازدیادی زعفران زینتی، اثر محیط‌های کشت مختلف در آزمایش اندام‌زایی مستقیم به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در 3 تکرار در آزمایشگاه کشت بافت گروه علوم باغبانی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، در سال 95-1394 انجام شد. ریزنمونه‌های مورد استفاده در این آزمایش جوانه‌های انتهایی و جانبی بودند که در 10 تیمار هورمونی و کنترل در محیط کشت MS مورد آزمایش قرار گرفتند. برای گندزدایی سطحی ریزنمونه‌ها پس از قرار‌گیری در زیر آب جاری به‌مدت 30 دقیقه از تیمار قارچ‌کش بنلیت محلول در آب گرم به مدت 30 دقیقه˛ اتانول 70 درصد به مدت 30 ثانیه و سه بار آبکشی در آب مقطر استریل و هیپوکلرید سدیم 15 درصد به مدت 6 دقیقه و سه بار آب‌کشی استفاده شد. تیمارهای هورمونی مورد استفاده شامل BAP (5/0، 1 و 2 میلی‌گرم در لیتر)، TDZ (5/0˛ 075/0 و 1 میلی‌گرم در لیتر) و Kin (5/0، 1 و 2 میلی‌گرم در لیتر) همراه با 1/0 میلی‌گرم در لیتر IBA بودند. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین طول شاخساره و تعداد آن حاصل از ریزنمونه جوانه انتهائی و محیط کشت MS همراه با 5/0 میلی‌گرم در لیتر TDZ،،5/0 میلی‌گرم در لیتر BAP، 5/0 میلی‌گرم در لیتر Kin و 1/0 میلی‌گرم در لیتر IBA تولید گردید که با سایر تیمارها در سطح احتمال 1 درصد آزمون دانکن اختلاف معنی‌دار داشت. همچنین نتایج نشان داد محیط کشت MS همراه با 2 میلی گرم در لیتر BAP همراه با 1/0 میلی‌گرم در لیتر IBA بیشترین اثر را روی تعداد پداژک های تولید‌شده زعفران زینتی داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

In Vitro Regeneration of Ornamental Crocus (Crocus vernus L.) by Using Plant Growth Regulators

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sara Parvin 1
  • Mohammad Hosein Daneshvar 2
  • amin lotfi jalal- abadi 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Crocus flower, which belongs to Iridaceae family, is one of the most important ornamental bulbous plants. The propagation of Crocus vernus L. by corm is not commercially affordable due to transmission of fungal and bacterial diseases as well as the long dormancy period which takes 4 to 5 months. Thus, in vitro culture of Crocus vernus is a suitable solution for commercial reproduction. Plant tissue culture technique would be a better alternative for improving quality and production.
 
Materials and Methods
In order to micropropagate ornamental saffron, the effect of different culture media on direct organogenesis experiment was conducted in factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with 3 replications in the tissue culture lab of the Department of Horticulture at Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan from 2015 to 2016. The explants used in this experiment were latheral and terminal buds which were evaluated in 10 hormons treatments and control in the Murashige and Skoog medium (MS). To eliminate surface contamination, the explants were first immersed under water for 30 minutes after placing the corms. Next, they were placed in high temperature Benlate fungicide solution (55° C) for 30 minutes. Then, they were put in 70% ethanol (ethyl alcohol) for 30 seconds and 15% Sodium hypochlorite solution for 6 minutes. The explants were finally washed three times with sterile distilled water under the air flow bench. The effects of plant growth regulators including BAP (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/l), TDZ (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg/l), Kin (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/l) and 0.1mg/l IBA in direct regeneration were investigated.
 
Results
The results showed that the kind of plant growth regulators (PGR) and the explant type are very important in regeneration of Crocus vernus so that we can not secure any shoots without PGR. In direct organogenesis experiment, the maximum number of multiple shoots (15.84) was obtained from apical bud explant in MS medium supplemented with 5/0 mg/l TDZ along with 5/0 mg/l BAP, 5/0 mg/l KIN and 1/0 mg/l IBA, after 10 weeks, that had a significant difference with other treatments at 1% Duncan test. We observed 2.o mg/l BAP along with 1/0 mg/l IBA had the greatest effect on the number of corms.
 
Discussion
The results showed the shoot regeneration is controlled by the ratio of cytokinin with auxin. It should be mentioned that cytokinin plays a role in the synthesis of RNA, stimulation of the production of protein, and the activity of some enzymes. The results also indicated that the use of cytokinin along with auxin has a beneficial effect on shoot regeneration.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crocus vernus
  • Direct organogenesis
  • MS medium
  • Shoot regeneration
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