عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Objectives
Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is one of the most popular soft fruits worldwide. It is a rich source of health promoting compounds such as essential macro/micro-nutrients, polyphenols, anthocyanin, vitamins and amino acids, while showing a high antioxidant capacity. Preharvest applications of calcium lactate and potassium sorbate have shown to be promising as a tool to improve the quality and extend the shelf life of various fruits. To our knowledge, however, little information is available regarding the effect of calcium lactate and potassium sorbate on strawberry fruits. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the effect of foliar application of calcium lactate and potassium sorbate on important quality characteristics and antioxidant properties of ‘Armas’ strawberries.
Materials and Methods
This research was performed at a commercial orchard on 2-year old strawberries in Marivan, Iran in 2015. The experiment was arranged as factorial based on randomized complete block design with two factors and four replications. The first factor included different levels of calcium lactate (0, 0.5 and 1%) and the second factor included different levels of potassium sorbate (0, 0.5 and 1%). Foliar spraying was performed in three stages: three weeks before commercial harvesting, at initial coloring, and one week before harvest. Fruit were harvested at commercial maturity and immediately transported to the laboratory at University of Zanjan and subjected to physicochemical analysis. Differences among means of data were analyzed by Duncan’s test at p ≤ 0.05 (n = 3). All statistical analyses were performed with SAS version 9.4.
The results showed that the combination of calcium lactate and potassium sorbate (0.5 Percent concentration) treatment significantly (P £ 0.01) increased the total anthocyanin content of the whole fruit, reuslting into further attractive fruit color and market than the control. It also increased antioxidant properties up to a level of 57.07%. On the other hand, the application of this treatment (calcium lactate and potassium sorbate 0.5 Percent) significantly increased the total flavonoid content, total soluble solids, flavor index (1.1 Percent) and calcium lactate (1 Percent). Potassium sorbate increased total phenol, total acidity, and fruit acidity significantly compared to other treatments and control (P £ 0.05).
In general, the results of the present study showed that a preharvest application of calcium lactate and potassium sorbate increased firmness, nutritional quality, and antioxidant potential of strawberry fruits. Thus, the use of these two materials is recommended to improve the qualitative and antioxidant properties of strawberry fruit.
Abbasi, A. N., Tareen, J. M. and Hafiz, A. I. (2012). Postharvest application of salicylic acid enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity and maintained quality of peach cv.’Flordaking’ fruit during storage. Scientia Horticulturae, 142, 221-228.
Aguayo, E., Jansasithorn, R. and Kader, A. A. (2006). Combined effects of 1-methylcyclopropene, calcium chloride dip, and/or atmospheric modification on quality changes in fresh-cut strawberries. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 40(3), 269-278.
Akhtar, A., Abbasi, N. A. and Hussain, A. (2010). Effect of calcium chloride treatments on quality characteristics of loquat fruit during storage. Pakistan Botany, 42(1), 181-188.
Almela, C., Castello, M. L., Tarrazo, J. and Ortola, M. D. (2013). Influence of calcium lactate and modified atmosphere on respiration rate, optical and mechanical properties of sliced persimmon. Food Science and Technology International, 21(1), 55-63.
Atri, M., Gholami, M. and Karami, F. (2008). Effect of calcium chloride leaf spread on increasing the shelf life of strawberry in kurdistan. Agricultural and Agricultural Research, 8(1), 47-55..[ In Farsi].
Caruso, G., Villari, G. and Lmpembo, M. (1999). Effect of nutritive solution K: N and shading on the fruit quality of NFT grown strawberry. Acta Horticulturae, 614(8), 727-734.
Cheour, F., Willemot, C., Arul, J., Desjardins, Y., Makhlouf, J., Charest, P. M. and Gosselin, A., (1990). Foliar application of calcium chloride delays postharvest ripening of strawberry. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 115(5), 789-792.
Clender, R. E. and Virk, S. (1990). Calcium cell wall and growght. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 112(1), 68-74.
Dehghan, G. and Khoshkam, Z. (2012). Tin (II)-quercetin complex: Synthesis, spectral characterization and antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry, 131(2), 422-427.
Dokhanieh, A. Y., Aghdam, M. S., Rezapour Fard, J. and Hassanpour, H. (2013). Postharvest salicylic acid treatment enhances antioxidant potential of cornelian cherry fruit. Scientia Horticulture, 154, 31-36.
Dudman , M. and Amiri, M. (2010). The effect of magnesium potassium and nitrogen on the yield of some strawberry traits of Sanreyz cultivar under hydroponic culture conditions.. M.Sc. Thesis, Zanjan University, Zanjan. [ In Farsi].
Ferguson, I. B. (1984). Calcium in plant senescence and fruit ripening. Plant, Cell & Environment, 7(6), 477-489.
Ferreyra, M. R., Vina, S. Z., Mugridge, A. and Chaves, A. R. (2007). Growth and ripening season effects on antioxidant capacity of strawberry cultivar Selva. Science Horticulcurae, 112(1), 27-32.
Ghesmati, M., Moradinezhad, F. and khayat, M. (2018). Efficacy of Some Calcium Salts Foliar Spray on Growth and Biochemica Parameters of Jujube Fruit (Ziziphus jujuba Mill). Plant Productions, 41(3), 30-33. [In Farsi]
Giusti, M. M. and Worlstad, R. E. (2001). Characterization and measurement of anthocyanins by UV-visible spectroscopy. Current Protocols in food Analytical Chemistry, 14(3), 217-225
Hamedani, M., Rabiei, V., Moradi, H. and Ghanbari, A. (2014). The effect of time and storage on biochemical changes and quality of after-harvesting of Citrus sinensis cv Moro. Iranian Journal of Horticulture, 44(4), 367-377 .[ In Farsi]
Hernandez-Munoz, P., Almenar, E., Valle, V. D., Velez, D. and Gavara, R. (2008). Effect of chitosan coating combined with postharvest calcium treatment on strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) quality during refrigerated storage. Food Chemistry, 110(2), 428-35.
Hiratsuka, S., Onodera, H., Kawai, Y., Kubo, T., Itoh, H. and Wada, R., (2001). ABA and sugar effects on anthocyanin formation in grape berry cultured in vitro. Scientia Horticulturae, 90(1), 121-130.
Kadir, S. A. (2005). Fruit quality at harvest of ‘Jonathan’ apple treated with foliarlyapplied calcium chloride. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 27(11), 1991-2006.
Kaijv, M., Sheng, L. and Chao, C. (2006). Antioxidatioan of flavonoids of green rhizome. Food Science, 27(3), 110-115.
Khademi, O., Zamani, Z., Mostofi, Y., Kalantari, S. and Ahmadi, A. (2012). Extending storability of persimmon fruit cv. Karaj by postharvest application of salicylic acid. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 14, 1067-1074.
Lemoine, M. L., Civello, P. M., Martınez, G. A. and Chaves, A. R. (2007). Influence of postharvest UV-C treatment on refrigerated storage of minimally processed broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 87(6), 1132–1139.
Liu, K., Wanga, X. and Young, M. (2014). Effect of bentonite/potassium sorbate coatings on the quality of mangos in storage at ambient temperature. Journal of Food Engineering, 137, 16-22.
Macit, I., Koc, A., Guler, S. and Deligoz, I. (2007). Yield quality and nutritional status of organically and conventionally-grown strawberry cultivares. Asian Journal of Plant sciences, 6(7), 1131-1136.
Madani, B., Mirshekari, A. and Yahia, E. (2016). Effect of calcium chloride treatments on calcium content, anthracnose severity and antioxidant activity in papaya fruit during ambient storage. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculcure, 96(9), 2963-2968.
Martin-Diana, A. B., Rico, D., Frias, J. M., Henehan, G. T. M., Mulcahy, J., Barat, J. M. and Barry-Ryan, C. (2007). Effect of calcium lactate and heatshock on texture in fresh-cut lettuce during storage. Food Engineering, 77(4), 1069-1077.
Miri, S. M., Hossieni, M., Surrey, M. K. and Abbass Poor, S. (2016). The effects of potassium nitrate and phenyl Ftalamik acid on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of strawberry cultivars of Gabyogi. Plant Productions, 39(4), 43-52.
Modarres, B, Ramin, A. A. and Ghobadi, S. (2015). The effect of 1-methyl cyclopropene (1-MCP) on the shelf life of strawberry fruit and berries of Camarosa cultivars. Magazine Production and Processing of Crops and Garden, 4(11), 253-267. [In Farsi]
Naser, F., Rabiei, V., Razavi, F. and Khademi, O. (2018). Effect of calcium lactate in combination with hot water treatment on the nutritional quality of persimmon fruit during cold storage. Scientia Horticulturae, 233, 114-123.
Nava, G., Dechen, A. R. and Nachtigall, G. R., (2007). Nitrogen and potassium fertilization affect apple fruit quality in southern Brazil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 39(1-2), 96-107.
Puerta-Gomez, A. F. and Cisneros-Zevallos, L. (2011). Postharvest studies beyond fresh market eating quality: Phytochemical antioxidant changes in peach and plum fruit during ripening and advanced senescence. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 60(3), 220-224.
Salmon, A. B., Richardson, A. and Perez, V. I. (2010). Update on the oxidative stress theory of aging. does oxidative stress play a role in aging or healthy aging?. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 48(5), 642-655.
Schwarz, D., Oztekin, G. B., Tuzel, Y., Bruckner, B. and Krumbein, A. (2013). Rootstocks can enhance tomato growth and quality characteristics at low potassium supply. Scientia Horticulturae, 1490, 70-79.
Sharma, R. M. and Yamdagni, R. (2000). Modern strawberry cultivation. Daryaganj, New Delhi, Delhi, India: Kalyani Publishers.
Shojaee A., Ghasemnejad, M. and Mortazavi, S. N. (2011). Changes in antioxidant capacity and post harvest quality of Thomson fruit orange juice during storage. Journal of Horticulture, 25(2), 147-155. [In Farsi]
Shoji, T. (2007). Polyphenols as natural food pigments: Changes during food processing. American Journal of Food Technology, 2(7), 570-581.
Singleton, V. L. and Rossi, J. A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic–phosphotungstic acid reagents. American. Journal. Enology . Viticulture, 16(3), 144-158.
Tesfay, S. Z., Bertling, I. and Bower, J. P. (2010). Levels of antioxidants in various tissues during maturation of ‘Hass’ avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Journal of Horticulturae Science Biotechnology, 85(2), 106-112.
Wafaa, A. A., Sahar, M. A. and Kamel, O. T. (2014). Using safe alternatives for controlling postharvest decay, maintaining quality of crimson seedless grape. World Applied Sciemces Journal, 31(7), 1345- 1357.
Wang, T. X., Yin, H. Z., Zhang, W., Peng, T. and Kang, W. Y. (2013). Chemical constituents from Psoralea corylifolia and their antioxidant alpha-glucosidase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, 38(14), 2328-2333.
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee SCU, Ahvaz, Iran. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0 license) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/)