بررسی اثر اسید‌سالیسیلیک بر ویژگی‌های کیفی میوه سیب زرد و قرمز (Golden delicious and Red delicious) لبنانی طی دوره انبارمانی

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی عصر (عج) رفسنجان، رفسنجان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی عصر (عج) رفسنجان، رفسنجان، ایران

3 استاد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی عصر (عج) رفسنجان، رفسنجان، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
یکی از عوامل مؤثر در کاهش عمر انباری میوه سیب وجود اتیلن در محیط نگهداری است که منجر به کاهش ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی آن می‌گردد. در سال 1394 به منظور حفظ کیفیت و افزایش عمر انباری میوه سیب و حل معضلات پس از برداشت این میوه، تاًثیر غلظت‌های مختلف اسید‌سالیسیلیک بر انبارمانی میوه‌های سیب ارقام زرد و قرمز لبنانی از منطقه سرچشمه واقع در رفسنجان در زمان های صفر ، 45، 90، 135 و 180روز بعد از انبارمانی بررسی شد. تیمارها شامل بدون شست و شو (شاهد)، آب‌مقطر، اسید‌سالیسیلیک 1، 2 و 3 میلی‌مولار بود. میوه ها پس از تیمار در سردخانه با دمای 1±2 درجه‌سلیسیوس و رطوبت نسبی 5±90 درصد نگهداری شد. سفتی بافت میوه، ویتامین‌ ث، TSS/TA، فنل، آردی شدن میوه، عطر و طعم (تست پانل)، سرمازدگی در پایان هر دوره انبارمانی و ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی در سه دوره (صفر، 90 و 180 روز بعد از انبار) ارزیابی شدند. کلیه تیمارهای اسید‌سالیسیلیک نسبت به شاهد روند سرمازدگی، آردی شدن و رسیدن میوه را کند کرده و باعث حفظ عطر و طعم شد. 90 روز بعد از انبارمانی ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی (90 درصد) و مقدار فنل (30 درصد) با تیمار اسید‌سالیسیلیک دو و سه میلی‌مولار افزایش یافت ولی این تیمار تأثیر معنی داری بر ویتامین‌ ث و سفتی میوه نداشت. طی انبارمانی بیشترین میزان سرمازدگی و آردی شدن مربوط به میوه سیب زرد و بیشترین مقدار سفتی گوشت (6/2 کیلوگرم نیرو) و پوست (7/4 کیلوگرم نیرو)، ویتامین ث (62 میلی‌گرم بر100 میلی‌لیتر) و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی (15 درصد) متعلق به سیب رقم قرمز بود. از بین تیمارها کاربرد اسید‌سالیسیلیک دو میلی‌مولار به مدت 30 دقیقه در حفظ کیفیت انبارمانی میوه هر دو رقم سیب زرد و قرمز لبنانی مؤثرتر از تیمار شاهد و سایر تیمارهای اسید‌سالیسیلیک بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Quality Characteristics of Apple Fruit (Golden Delicious and Red Delicious) During Storage Period

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Sedaghati 1
  • Fatemeh Nazoori 2
  • Seyed Hossein Mirdehghan 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsajan, Rafsajan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsajan, Rafsajan, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsajan, Rafsajan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Apple has a long-term supply throughout the year because of its high storage capacity. Sometimes keeping this fruit in the cold storage room for a long time reduces the quality and marketability, thus making it unattractive for consumers. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural compounds to maintain fruit quality and extend its shelf life. Salicylic acid (SA), a widely distributed compound in plants, belongs to a group of phenolic compounds. It could be considered an endogenous plant growth regulator involved in the regulation of physiological processes and disease resistance mechanisms.
 
Materials and Methods
To solve this problem, the effect of different concentrations of salicylic acid on the storage of golden and red delicious apple fruits was examined at harvest, 45, 90, 135 and 180 days after storage. Treatments included no washing, distilled water, and salicylic acid 1, 2, and 3 mM for half and 1 hours in cold storage room at 1 ± 2° C. At the end of each storage period, traits such as fruit firmness, vitamin C, TSS/TA, phenol, mealy fruit, flavor (panel test), chilling index and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in three storage periods (0, 90 and 180 days after storage). A factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design was conducted. In both cultivars, harvest index coincided with 170 days after full bloom.
 
Results
Results showed that chilling injury, mealy and fruit ripening reduced by salicylic acid treatment and flavor maintained. Antioxidant capacity and phenol content increased by salicylic acid treatment during the storage, but no effect on vitamin C and fruit firmness was observed. During storage, maximum of chilling injury and flavor was related to yellow apple fruit and the maximum of tissue and skin firmness, vitamin C and antioxidant activity belonged to red apple cultivar. The use of 2 mM salicylic acid for half an hour was more effective than other treatments in preserving the quality and storage of fruit of both cultivars.
 
Discussion
The results of this study showed that at the end of the storage period the amount of mealy fruit
and flavor increased, while skin and tissue firmness decreased significantly. The effects of salicylic acid include a decrease in mealy fruit and chilling injury, as well as an increase in phenolic compounds and maintenance of the antioxidant activity, flavor and TSS/TA, which ultimately increased shelf life of apple fruits. High quality and storage capacity were related to red rather than yellow apple.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chilling
  • Firmness
  • Flavor
  • mealness index
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