عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Objectives
Apple has long-term supply throughout the year because of its high storage capacity. Sometimes keeping this fruit in the cold storage room for long time, result to reduce quality and marketability and is not attractive for consumer. Recently, there is an increasing interest in the use of natural compounds for maintenance of fruit quality and extension of shelf life. Salicylic acid (SA), a widely distributed compound in plants, belongs to a group of phenolic compounds. Salicylic acid could be considered as an endogenous plant growth regulator involved in the regulation of physiological processes and disease resistance mechanisms
Material and Methods
To solve this problem, the effect of different concentrations of salicylic acid on the storage of golden and red delicious apple fruits were examined at harvest, 45, 90, 135 and 180 days after storage. Treatments were included no washing, distilled water, salicylic acid 1, 2, and 3 mM for half and 1 hours in cold storage room at 1 ± 2° C. At the end of each storage period traits such as fruit firmness, vitamin C, TSS/TA, phenol, mealy fruit, flavor (panel test), chilling index were evaluated and antioxidant capacity was evaluated in three storage periods (0, 90 and 180 day after storage). A factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design was designed. In both cultivars, harvest index coincided with 170 days after full bloom
Results showed chilling injury, mealy and fruit ripening reduced by salicylic acid treatment and flavor had maintained. Antioxidant capacity and phenol content increased by salicylic acid treatment during the storage, but no effect on vitamin C and fruit firmness. During storage, maximum of chilling injury and flavor was related to yellow apple fruit and the maximum of tissue and skin firmness, vitamin C and antioxidant activity has belonged to red apple cultivar. Between treatments, the use of 2 mM salicylic acid for half an hour was more effective than other treatments in preserving the quality and storage of fruit of both cultivars.
The results of this study showed that at the end of storage period, the amount of mealy fruit and flavor were increased, skin and tissue firmness was decreased significantly. Salicylic acid result to decrease mealy fruit and chilling injury, increase to phenolic compounds and maintenance the antioxidant activity, flavor and TSS/TA, ultimately increased the shelf life of apple fruits. High quality and storage capacity related to red apple than yellow apple.