به‌گزینی ژنوتیپ‌های گردوی ایرانی برای برخی از صفات کمّی و کیفی و بررسی تنوع ژنتیکی نمونه‌های امیدبخش بر اساس نشانگر ISSR

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم باغبانی، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

10.22055/ppd.2019.24861.1569

چکیده

چکیده
در این پژوهش، 119 ژنوتیپ گردوی ایرانی در سال 1393 و 1394 از مناطق مختلف غرب کشور جمع‌آوری‌شده بودند، بر اساس صفات مربوط به خشک میوه در آزمایشگاه گروه علوم باغبانی دانشگاه ایلام مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. ارزیابی اولیه ژنوتیپ‌های گردو نشان داد که تنوع بالایی در صفات اندازه‌گیری‌شده مرتبط با خشک میوه و مغز وجود دارد. در بین صفات خشک میوه، چروکیدگی مغز دارای بیشترین مقدار ضریب تنوع (02/114 درصد) بود، در‌حالی‌که کمترین ضریب تنوع مربوط به قطر خشک میوه (68/8 درصد) بود. در بین ژنوتیپ‌های گردو، وزن خشک میوه و مغز به‌ترتیب از 7 تا 8/19 گرم و 8/2 تا 20/9 گرم متغیر بود. بر اساس ارزیابی اولیه، از بین 119 ژنوتیپ مورد بررسی، 30 ژنوتیپ برتر که دارای صفات مطلوبی در ویژگی‌های خشک میوه و مغز مانند وزن خشک میوه و مغز، درصد مغز، سهولت جدایی مغز از خشک میوه، گوشتی و توپر بودن مغز بودند، انتخاب شدند و سپس تنوع ژنتیکی بین آن‌ها با استفاده از 10 آغازگر ISSR بررسی و تنوع قابل توجهی مشاهده گردید. آغازگرهای ISSR در مجموع 79 آلل میان ژنوتیپ‌ها تولید کردند که 77 آلل دارای چندشکلی بودند. اندازه قطعات تکثیر‌شده در محدوه 200 تا 1700 جفت‌باز قرار داشت. تعداد آلل مشاهده‌شده برای هر مکان در دامنه سه (HB10) تا 13 آلل (UBC-807) با میانگین 77/7 آلل برای هر مکان به‌دست آمد. شاخص محتوی چندشکلی (PIC)برایمکانUBC-807  دارای بیشترین مقدار (82/0) و برای مکان HB10 دارای کمترین مقدار (51/0) بود و میانگین آن در همه مکان‌های ISSR برابر با75/0 بود. دامنه تشابه ژنتیکی میان ژنوتیپ‌ها از 31/0 تا 85/0 متغیر بود. تجزیه خوشه‌ای با استفاده از داده‌های ISSR به روشUPGMA ، ژنوتیپ‌ها را در فاصله ژنتیکی 58/0، به هفت گروه اصلی تقسیم کرد. نتایج کلی این تحقیق نشان داد برخی از این ژنوتیپ‌ها (16، 4، 24، 26، 11 و 17) دارای صفات مطلوبی در خشک میوه و مغز هستند که می‌توانند از طریق روش‌های رویشی تکثیر و به صورت تجاری کشت شوند و یا در اصلاح سنتی گردو و مطالعات پیشرفته بیوتکنولوژی برای دستیابی به نتاج بهتر مورد استفاده قرار گیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Screening of Persian Walnut Genotypes Based on the Quantitative and Qualitative Characters and the Investigation of Genetic Diversity among Promising Samples Using ISSR Marker

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nasim Zare-Rashnodi 1
  • Javad Erfani Moghadam 2
  • Arash Fazeli 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Horticultural Science, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
2 Associate Professors, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
3 Associate Professors, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) belongs to the family of Juglandaceae and is one of the most important nut crops in Iran. Until recently, all of the fruitful walnut trees grown in Iran are seedling originated and thus, they exhibit a significant variation, especially in nut and kernel characteristics. Therefore, the identification of the promising genotypes based on the phenotypic traits is essential in breeding programs. The aims of the current work were to evaluate 119 Persian walnut trees in different western regions of Iran based on nut and kernel characteristics, and then to detect genetic relationships among desirable genotype using ISSR marker.
 
Materials and Methods
In this research, 119 Persian walnut genotypes collected from different parts of the west of Iran were evaluated based on nut characteristics. Based on the primary evaluation, 30 superior genotypes that had desirable characters in nut and kernel properties, such as nut and kernel weight, kernel percentage, kernel removal from the nut, kernel plumpness, and kernel filled were selected and then, the genetic variation among them was evaluated using 10 ISSR primers.
 
Results
The preliminary evaluation of 119 walnut genotypes illustrated that most of the evaluated genotypes showed high variability for the measured traits related to nut and kernel. Among the nut and kernel characters, the kernel shriveling showed the highest coefficient of variation (114.02%), while the lowest CV was related to the nut diameter (8.68%). Among walnut genotypes, both nut and kernel weight varied from 7-19.8 g and 2.8-9.20 g, respectively. The genetic relationship among 30 promising genotypes with ten ISSR primers indicated a considerable level of variability. All of the ISSR primers were polymorphic and produced a total of 79 alleles among the 30 genotypes, which 77 alleles were polymorphic. The size of the amplified fragments ranged from 200 bp to 1700 bp. The number of the observed alleles for each locus ranged from 3 (HB10) to 13 (UBC-807), with an average of 7.7 alleles per locus. Polymorphic index content (PIC) was observed to be highest (0.82) in the UBC-807 locus, while the HB10 locus had the lowest value (0.51) with an average of 0.75 among ISSR locus. The Jaccard’s genetic similarity coefficient ranged from 0.31 to 0.85 among the genotypes. The cluster analysis performed based on ISSR data using UPGMA, divided the genotypes into seven major groups.
 
Discussion
Finally, the results of this study showed that there was high variability among walnut genotypes in terms of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the nut and the kernel. In this study, the average nut and kernel weight among walnut genotypes varied. The difference in nut and kernel properties of germplasm under the same geographical conditions may be the result of genotypic factors. The results indicated that some genotypes (16, 4, 24, 26, 11, and 17) had desirable traits in the nut and kernel. Moreover, the Persian walnut is of most important horticultural crops grown in Iran. Therefore, these genotypes can be propagated according to the vegetative methods and used for commercial cultivation or utilized for traditional breeding and advanced biotechnology studies to achieve superior progenies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Allele
  • Cluster analysis
  • Fruit diameter
  • Kernel percentage
  • Polymorphism

References

Ahmed, N., Mir, J. I., Mir, R. R., Rather, N. A., Rashid, R., Wani, S. H., Shafi, W., Mir, H. and Sheikh, M. A. (2012). SSR and RAPD analysis of genetic diversity in walnut (Juglans regia L.) genotypes from Jammu and Kashmir, India. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 18(2), 149-160.

Aly, M. M., Robert, A., Fjellstrom, G., McGranahan, G. H. and Parfitt, E. (1991). Origin of walnut somatic embryos determine by RFLP and Isozyme analysis. Hort Science, 27(1), 61-63.

Amiri, R., Vahdati, K., Mohsenipoor, S., Mozaffari, M. R. and Leslie, C. (2010). Correlations between some horticultural traits in walnut. Hort Science, 45(11), 1690-1694.

Arzani, K., Mansouri‐Ardakan, H., Vezvaei, A. and Roozban, M. R. (2008). Morphological variation among Persian walnut (Juglans regia) genotypes from central Iran. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 36(3), 159-168.

Asadi Gharneh, H. A., Arzani, K., Shojaeiyan, A., Golparvar, A. R., and Sabaghnia, N. (2015). Evaluation of genetic diversity in some strawberry (fragaria × annanasa Duch.) cultivars in Iran using morphological characteristics. Plant Productions, 37(4), 93-105.

Atefi, J. (2001). Comparison of some promising Iranian walnut clones and foreign varieties. Acta Horticulturae, 544(4), 51-59.

Balci, I., Balta, F., Kazankaya, A. and Sen, S. M. (2001). Promising native walnut genotypes (Juglans regia L.) of the east black sea region of Turkey. Journal of the American Pomological Society, 55(4), 204-208.

Christopoulos, M. V., Rouskas, D., Tsantili, E. and Bebeli, P. J. (2010). Germplasm diversity and genetic relationships among walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars and Greek local selections revealed by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. Scientia Horticulturae, 125(4), 584-592.

Doyle, J. J. and Doyle, J. L. (1990). Isolation of plant DNA form fresh tissue. Focus, 12(3), 13-15.

Ebrahimi, A., Fatahi, R. and Zamani, Z. (2011). Analysis of genetic diversity among some Persian walnut genotypes (Juglans regia L.) using morphological traits and SSRs markers. Scientia Horticulturae, 130(1), 146-151.

Ehteshamnia, A., Sharifani M. and Vahdati, K. (2010). Investigation of qualitative morphological and geographical diversity among native populations of walnut (Juglans regia L.) in Golestan province. Journal of Plant Productions Research, 17(2), 15-38. [In Farsi]

Ehteshamnia, A., Sharifani, M., Vahdati, K., and Erfani Moghaddam, V. (2009a). Investigation of genetic diversity among some native populations of walnut (Juglans regia L.) in Golestan province by SSR Markers. Journal of Plant Productions Research, 16(4), 39-58. [In Farsi]

Ehteshamnia, A., Sharifani, M., Vahdati, K., and Erfani Moghaddam, V. Musavizadeh, S. J. and Mohsenipoortaklo, S. (2009b). Investigation of morphological diversity among native populations of walnut (Juglans regia L.) in Golestan province, Iran. Journal of Plant Productions Research, 16(3), 29-48. [In Farsi]

Erturk, U. M. and Dalkilic, Z. E.  (2011). Determination of genetic relationship among some walnut (Juglans regia L.) genotypes and their early-bearing progenies using RAPD markers. Romanian Biotechnological Letters, 16(1), 5944-5952.

Eskandari, S., Hassani, D. and Abdi, A. (2006). Investigation on genetic diversity of Persian walnut and evaluation of promising genotypes. Acta Horticulturae, 705(5), 159-166.

Fakhraei, M., Tabar, R., Sarsaiefi, M., Fattie, A., Abadozi, G. H., Hajhasani, M., Farhadi, A., Khakizad, G. H., Azizi, Z., Samadi, B., Kiani, M., Mirakhorlee, A., Foromadi, N., Mzaffari, J. and Rafezi, R. (2016). Genetic diversity Mulberry genotypes of Iran by using morphological characteristics. Plant Productions, 39(3), 39-50.

Fatahi, R., Ebrahimi, A. and Zamani, Z. (2010). Characterization of some Iranians and foreign walnut genotypes using morphological traits and RAPD markers. Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology, 51(1), 51-60.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2016). Faostat 3. Retrieved fromhttp://www.fao.org/faostat/en/.

Forde, H. I. (1975). Walnuts. In J. Janick & J. N. Moore (Eds.). Advances in fruit breeding (pp. 439-455). West Lafayette, UK: Purdue University Press.

Forde, H. I. and McGranaham, G. H. (1993). A new walnut cultivar Malizia. USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Foroni, I., Rao, R., Woeste, K. and Gallitelli, M. (2005). Characterisation of Juglans regia L. with SSR markers and evaluation of genetic relationships among cultivars and the ‘Sorrento’landrace. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 80(1), 49-53.

George, K. J., Varma, R.S., Ganga, G., Utpala, P., Sasikumar, B., Saji, K. V. and Parthasarathy, V. A. (2006). ISSR markers for genetic diversity analysis in spices-An appraisal. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 63(3), 302-304.

Hassani, D., Mozaffari, M. R., Dehghan Souraki, Y., Soleimani, A. and Loni, A. (2013). Vegetative and reproductive traits of some Iranian local and foreign cultivars and genotypes of walnut (Juglans regia L.). Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, 29(4), 839-855. [In Farsi]

IPGRI. (1994). Descriptors for walnut (Juglans spp.). Rome, Italy: International plant genetic resources institute.

Karimi, R., Ershadi, A., Ehteshamnia, A., Sharifani, M., Rasouli, M., Ebrahimi, A. and Vahdati, K. (2014). Morphological and molecular evaluation of Persian walnut populations in northern and western regions of Iran. Journal of Nuts, 5(2), 21-31.

Khadivi-Khub, A., Jahangirzadeh, S., Ahadi, E. and Aliyoun, S. (2014). Nuclear and chloroplast DNA variability and phylogeny of Iranian apples (Malus domestica). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 300(8), 1803-1817.

Mahmoodi, R., Hassani, D., Amiri, M. E. and Jafaraghaee, M. (2014). Comparison of nut characteristics and yield of some selected Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) genotypes with foreign cultivars. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, 30(2), 441-456. [In Farsi]

Mahmoodi, R., Rahman, F. and Paktarmani, R. (2012). Genetic diversity of Persian walnut from Iran as revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Journal of the American Pomological Society, 66(2), 101-106.

Mahmoodi, R., Rahmani, F. and Rezaee, R. (2013). Genetic diversity among Juglans regia L. genotypes assessed by morphological traits and microsatellite markers. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 11(2), 431-437.

Malvolti, M. E., Fineschi, S. and Pigliucci, M. (1994). Morphological integration and genetic variability in Juglans regia L. Journal of Heredity, 85(5), 389-394.

Mardi, M., Zeinalabedini, M., Haghjoyan, R., Jamali, S. H., Khayam Nekouei, S. M., Kavand, A., Ahmadi, K., Sadeghi, L., Loni, A. A., Karami, T. and Khoshkam, S. (2015). Application of microsatellite markers for identification and registration of walnut cultivars. Journal of Horticulture Science, 28(4), 584-593. [In Farsi]

Nicese, F. P., Hormaza, J. I. and McGranahan, G. H. (1998). Molecular characterization and genetic relatedness among walnut (Juglans regia L.) genotypes based on RAPD markers. Euphytica, 101(2), 199-206.

Orel, G., Marchant, A. D., Mcleod, J. A. and Richards, G. D. (2003). Characterization of 11 Juglandaceae genotypes based on morphology, cpDNA and RAPD. Hort Science, 38(6), 1178- 1183.

Peakall, R. and Smouse, P. E. (2006) GENALEX 6.1: Genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Molecular Ecology Notes, 6(1), 288-295.

Pollegioni, P., Major, A., Bartoli, S., Ducci, F., Proietti, R. and Malvolti, M. E. (2004). Application of microsattelite and dominant molecular markers for the discrimination of species and interspecific hybrids in genus Juglans. Acta Horticulturae, 705(5), 191-197.

Potter, D., Gao, F.Y., Aiello, G., Leslie, C. A. and McGranahan, G. H. (2002). Inter simple sequence repeat markers for fingerprinting and determining genetic relationships of walnut (Juglans regia) cultivars. Journal of the American Pomological Society, 127(1), 75-81.

Reddy, M. P., Sarla, N. and Siddiq, E. A. (2002). Inter simple sequences repeat (ISSR) polymorphism and its application in plant breeding. Euphytica, 128(1), 9-17.

Rezaei, R., Hasani, G., Hassani, D. and Vahdati, K. (2008). Morphobiological characteristics of some newly selected walnut genotypes from seedling collection of Kahriz-Orumia. Horticultural Science & Technology, 9(3), 205-214. [In Farsi]

Sharma, O. C. and Sharma, S. D. (2001). Correlation between nut and kernel characters of Persian walnut seedling trees of Garsa Valley in Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh. Acta Horticulturae, 544(4), 129-132.

Sicard, D., Nanni, L., Porfiri, O., Bulfon, D. and Papa, R. (2005). Genetic diversity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and P.coccineus L. landraces in central Italy. Plant Breeding, 124(5), 464-472.

Terzopoulos, P. J. and Bebeli, P. J. (2008). Genetic diversity analysis of Mediterranean faba bean (Vicia faba L.) with ISSR markers. Field Crop Research, 108(1), 39-44.

Xu, Z., Hu, T. and Zhang, F. (2012). Genetic diversity of walnut revealed by AFLP and RAPD markers. Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(7), 271-276.