تأثیر باکتری‏های محرک رشد و روش کشت بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی گیاه کنجد (Sesamum indicum L) در منطقه اهواز

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد اگرواکولوژی‏، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 استاد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت‏، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

10.22055/ppd.2019.24474.1551

چکیده

چکیده
به‏منظور بررسی اثر روش کاشت و استفاده از باکتری‌های محرک رشد بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گیاه کنجد پژوهشی در تابستان سال زراعی 1395 در دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز اجرا شد. طرح آزمایشی به‏صورت کرت‌های یک‏بار خرد‌شده در قالب پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی و در سه تکرار بود. تیمار اصلی روش‌های مختلف کاشت و تیمار فرعی شامل چهار ترکیب تلفیقی باکتری‌های محرک رشد شامل کاملاَ  شیمیایی (N- P- K)، تلفیقی 1: 50 درصدنیتروژن + 100 درصد فسفر + 100 درصد پتاسیم شیمیایی به‏ همراهکود بیولوژیکی سوپرنیتروپلاس، تلفیقی 2: 100 درصدنیتروژن+ 50 درصد فسفر + 100 درصد پتاسیم شیمیایی به‏همراه کود بیولوژیکیپتا بارور2 و تلفیقی 3: 50 درصد نیتروژن + 100 درصد فسفر + 100 درصد پتاسیم به ‏همراه کود بیولوژیکی بیوسولفور و هیومیکسین بود. نتایج نشان داد که در روش‌های مختلف کاشت بیش‌ترین (1441 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و کم‌ترین (1078) عملکرد دانه به‏ترتیب در روش کاشت یک ردیف روی پشته و روش کاشت کف جوی بودند. همچنین در مورد تیمارهای تلفیق کود بیش‌ترین عملکرد دانه (1674 کیلوگرم در هکتار) مربوط به تیمار کاملاً شیمیایی و کم‏ترین مقدار آن (1068 کیلوگرم در هکتار) مربوط به تیمار تلفیقی 1 (50 درصد نیتروژن + 100 درصد فسفر + 100 درصد پتاسیم شیمیایی به‏ همراهکود بیولوژیکی سوپرنیتروپلاس) بودند. همچنین بیش‌ترین (24/52) و کم‌ترین (2/33) درصد روغن به‏ترتیب مربوط به روش کاشت یک ردیف روی پشته با تیمار کودی کاملاً شیمیایی و نیز روش کاشت کف جوی و تیمار کودی تلفیقی 2 (100 درصدنیتروژن+ 50 درصد فسفر + 100 درصد پتاسیم شیمیایی به‏ همراه کود بیولوژیکیپتا بارور2)، بودند. صفات کیفیت روغن و درصد اسیدهای چرب اولئیک و لینولئیک در مدیریت تلفیقی کود و برای تمامی روش‌های کاشت نسبت به تیمار کودی کاملاً شیمیایی بیشتر بود. در مجموع نتایج آزمایش نشان داد، هر دو تیمار روش کاشت و مدیریت کود بر عملکرد کمی موثر می‏باشند درحالی‏که عملکرد کیفی بیشتر تحت تأثیر مدیریت کود قرار گرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Influence of PGPRs and Planning Methods on Yield Quantity and Quality of Sesame in Ahvaz

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fariba Mazrae 1
  • Amir Aynehband 2
  • Esfandiar Fateh 3
  • Aram Gorooei 4
1 M. Sc. Student of Agroecology, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
4 Ph.D. Student of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
The cropping pattern will influence the crop yield due to better use of light, better crop arrangement within and between rows, and also higher access to soil nutrients (Weiss, 2000). In sesame, high water use efficiency was gained when it was planted over and even under rows rather than when it was planted as a flat form (Aggarwal, 2003). Also, biofertilizers could compensate some of the plant’s need for nutrients like nitrogen, but apparently, it’s not sufficient. So the integrated chemical and biological fertilizer will increase plant height, pod per plant, 1000 seed weight, and grain yield (Kumar et al., 2009). Therefore, the goal of this research is the evaluation of the effect of PGPR as an integrated fertilizer management and planting method on sesame yield quantity and quality.
 
Materials and Methods
This study was carried out at the summer of 2016 in the experimental field station of Agricultural Faculty of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. The experimental design was a split plot based on RCB with three replications. Three planting methods placed on the main plot and sub-plot, including four fertilizer management. Sesame grain yield and yield components were measured. The data were subjected to ANOVA with SPSS and Duncan test was used to distinguish the mean differences which were significant.
 
Results
Results showed that the maximum pod per plant (177 cm), biological yield (5110 kg ha-1), grain yield (1825 kg ha-1), and harvest index (35.7 %) were obtained from the alternative planting on the top row with full chemical fertilizer management. Chlorophyll index was significantly affected by the fertilizer methods. While comparing the chlorophyll index between chemical (56) and the integrated 1and 2 (44 and 48) fertilizer management, it became evident that the decline of chemical nitrogen caused a significant reduction in this index. In other words, applying a biological fertilizer or the activity of PGPRs can’t compensate for the effect of chemical N reduction. In following, reducing the chlorophyll content likely had a negative effect on the plant photosynthesis potential which caused lower 1000 grain weight in integrated treatments than the full chemical fertilizer method. In addition, the planting method had no significant effect on oil percentage, but the highest and lowest oil yield belonged to the alternative planting on the top row (710 kg ha-1) and planting under row (482 kg ha-1), respectively. Based on our data, the change in panting method had no significant effect on oil percentage, but applying chemical N had significantly increased the oil percentage. Also, planting on top of the row increased both oil percentage and grain yield, which had direct positive effects on oil yield. Both oleic and linoleic acid were increased more by PGPRs than chemical N form, but these unsaturated fatty acids were not significantly affected by the planting method treatment.
 
Discussion
We find that both the highest grain yield (1441 kg ha-1) and oil percentage (52.24%) belonged to the planting a row on top of row treatment. Between the integrated fertilizer management, the heights (1674 kg ha-1) and lowest (1068 kg ha-1) grain yield belonged to the full chemical fertilizer and integrated 1 treatment, respectively. In contrast, both oleic and linoleic acid were the highest at integrated fertilizer management in all planting methods with chemical treatment. We concluded that the present sesame cultivars are more adaptive to high-input systems, so we must be breeding new cultivars which are more suitable for sustainable agriculture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grain yield
  • Humexin
  • Oil
  • Oleic acid and Linoleic acid

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