ارزیابی تحمل به خشکی ژنوتیپ‌های برتر زیره سبز ایران (Cuminum cyminum L.) با استفاده از شاخص‌های تحمل به خشکی

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اصلاح نباتات، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، عضو انجمن پژوهشگران جوان دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، پژوهشکده فناوری تولیدات گیاهی، دانشگاه شهید باهنرکرمان، کرمان، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه ژنتیک و اصلاح نباتات، پژوهشکده فناوری تولیدات گیاهی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران

10.22055/ppd.2019.24247.1539

چکیده

چکیده
زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum L.) از مهم‌ترین گیاهان دارویی و ادویه‌ای، با داشتن دوره رشد کوتاه و نیاز آبی پایین، مناسب کشت در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک ایران می‌باشد. به ‌منظور ارزیابی تحمل به خشکی ژنوتیپ‌های برتر زیره سبز ایران، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان در سال زراعی 1396-1395 انجام شد. در این آزمایش 15 ژنوتیپ برتر زیره سبز در شرایط نرمال و تنش رطوبتی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار بررسی شدند. تنش خشکی به‌صورت قطع آبیاری در اوایل مرحله گلدهی اعمال شد. بر اساس عملکرد دانه در شرایط تنش و بدون تنش، شاخص‌های تحمل به خشکی شامل شاخص تحمل (TOL)، میانگین تولید (MP)، میانگین هندسی تولید (GMP)، شاخص تحمل به تنش (STI)، شاخص حساسیت به تنش (SSI)، میانگین هارمونیک (HM)، شاخص عملکرد (YI) و شاخص پایداری عملکرد (YSI) محاسبه شدند. نتایج تجزیه همبستگی عملکرد دانه در شرایط نرمال و تنش رطوبتی با شاخص‌های محاسبه‌شده نشان داد شاخص‌های MP، GMP و STI مناسب‌ترین شاخص‌ها برای شناسایی ژنوتیپ‌های متحمل به تنش خشکی می‌باشند. تجزیه به مؤلفه‌های اصلی ژنوتیپ‌های شماره 7، 12، 8 و 13 را به‌عنوان متحمل‌ترین ژنوتیپ‌ها و ژنوتیپ‌های 6، 9، 10 و 14 را به‌عنوان حساس‌ترین ژنوتیپ‌ها معرفی کرد. همچنین براساس STS محاسبه‌شده برای هر ژنوتیپ، مشخص گردید ژنوتیپ‌های شماره 7، 4، 12، 8 و 13 جزو ژنوتیپ‌های متحمل و ژنوتیپ‌های 14، 10، 6، 9 و 2 به‌عنوان حساس‌ترین ژنوتیپ‌ها شناسایی شدند. بنابراین می‌توان ژنوتیپ‌های شماره 7، 4، 12، 8 و 13 را برای ایجاد یک جامعه اصلاح‌شده ژنتیکی پیشنهاد داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Evaluation of the Elite Genotypes for Drought Tolerance in Cumin (Cuminum Cyminum L.) Using Drought Tolerance Indices

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Dorrani-Nejad 1
  • Sonia Aghighi 2
  • Ghasem Mohammadi-Nejad 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Plant Breeding, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Member of Young Researcher Association Shahid-Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Research and Technology Institute of Plant Production (RTIPP) of Shahid-Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Genetic and Plant Breeding, Research and Technology Institute of Plant Production (RTIPP) of Shahid-Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is one of the most important aromatic and medicinal plants in the world. It has a short life cycle (100-120 days) and needs little water for its growth cycle. Therefore, it is suitable for cultivation in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. Different indices, including tolerance (TOL), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), stress tolerance index (STI), stress susceptibility index (SSI), harmonic mean (HM), yield index (YI), and yield stability index (YSI) have been employed for screening the stress tolerant genotypes. Due to the economic, medicinal, and aromatic importance of cumin, this study evaluated elite genotypes for drought tolerance in cumin in order to develop improved genetic population for farmers’ usage.
 
Materials and Methods
The experiment was carried out in the research field of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, during the growing season of 2016-2017. In this study, 15 elite genotypes in cumin were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with three replications in two different environments, including normal and stress conditions. Stress treatment was cutting-off irrigation at the early flowering stage. Seed yield (ton/ha) was measured. Tolerance indices were calculated for genotypes based on the seed yield. To find suitable indices in order to determine the tolerant genotypes, the correlation coefficient between the calculated indices YP and YS was performed. To evaluate the relationship between the tolerance indices and the studied genotypes, principal components analysis (PCA) was performed. In order to use all tolerance indices simultaneously, an equation was used for estimating the stress tolerance score (STS).
 
Results
The results of the correlation analysis revealed that GMP, MP, and STI indices were positively correlated with seed yield under both stress and non-stress conditions. Therefore, they can be suitable indices for determining tolerant genotypes. Principal components analysis (PCA) showed that the first and second Principal component explained 61.89% and 37.52% of the total variation, respectively. According to the bi-plot graph, genotypes No. 7, 12, 8, and 13 with high MP, GMP, and STI scores and low TOL and SSI scores had the highest tolerance to drought stress. Based on the calculated STS (stress tolerance score), genotypes No. 7, 4, 12, 8, and 13 were the most tolerant genotypes and genotypes No. 14, 10, 6, 9, and 2 were the most sensitive genotypes, respectively. These results were identical with the results of bi-plot analysis. Moreover, this equation is much easier to be used than the multivariate analysis, such as principal components analysis (PCA).
 
Discussion
The aim of this study was the evaluation and selection of tolerant genotypes with high seed yield, and based on the results obtained from all the applied methods, it can be concluded that genotypes No. 7, 4, 12, 8, and 13 are identified as tolerant genotypes and were recommended to develop improved genetic population after being-tested in other places.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Principal component analysis
  • Seed yield
  • Water stress condition

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