ارزیابی اثر نیتروژن بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ژنوتیپ‌های کنجد (Sesamum indicum L.) تحت رقابت علف‌های‌هرز

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

10.22055/ppd.2019.22805.1497

چکیده

چکیده
این آزمایش به‌صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در تابستان 1392 در شهرستان امیدیه انجام شد. فاکتور اصلی سطوح مختلف نیتروژن (صفر، 50 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و فاکتور فرعی شامل برهمکنش ژنوتیپ کنجد (بهبهان، یلووایت،tn -238  و tn-240) و علف‌ هرز (با دو سطح عاری وآلوده به علف‌ هرز) بود. نتایج نشان داد که تأثیر مقادیر مختلف نیتروژن، رقابت علف‌های هرز و ارقام کنجد بـر عملکـرد و اجـزای عملکرد معنی‌داری گردید. برهم‌کنش نیتروژن و رقم بر شاخص سطح برگ، تعداد کپسول در بوته، وزن هزاردانه و شاخص برداشت معنی‌دار شد. با افزایش نیتروژن مصرفی شاخص سطح برگ کنجد افزایش یافت ولی رقابت علف‌های هرز سبب کاهش 23 درصدی تعداد کپسول در بوته کنجد شد و وزن هزار دانه به میزان 5/7 درصد شد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه (06/158 گرم در مترمربع) از تیمار 100 کیلوگرم نیتروژن و از رقم محلی بهبهان (38/ 151 گرم در مترمربع) حاصل شد. در مجموع کاربرد تیمار نیتروژن افزایش 31 درصدی عملکرد بیولوژیک را نسبت به تیمار شاهد سبب شد. رقابت علف‌های هرز به‌ترتیب کاهش 43 و24 درصدی عملکرد دانه و بیولوژیک کنجد را باعث شد. نتایج به‌دست آمده از این تحقیق نشان داد که کشت رقم محلـی بهبهان با کاربرد تیمار 100 کیلوگرم نیتـروژن در شـرایط منطقه‌ای امیدیه، سبب افزایش عملکرد دانه خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Nitrogen on Yield and Yield Components of Different Sesame (Sesamum Indicum L.) Varieties under Weed Competition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Soraya Haghanian 1
  • Alireza Yadavi 2
  • Hamidreza Balouchi 2
  • Ali Moradi 3
  • Yaeghoub Behzadi 4
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran
4 Ph.D. Student of Crop Physiology, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Competition, as one of the key issues and complex phenomena, is in the ecophysiological discussions of plant communities and is influenced by many factors that can be attributed to weed interference with the crop and the use of fertilizer inputs. Considering that nowadays the use of plant oils and sesame cultivation has increased, the aim of this study was to investigate the response of sesame cultivars to nitrogen increase in competition with weeds to identify the limitations and benefits of nitrogen use.
 
 
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted as a split factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Omidieh (Khuzestan Province) during the summer of 2013. The main plot consisted of nitrogen fertilizer application levels (control [non-use] and use of 50 and 100 kg/ha nitrogen from urea form) and subplots were in a factorial combination of sesame varieties (Behbahan landrace, Yellow-white, tn-238, and tn-240) and weed competition in two levels (weed free and weed infest). In this experiment, morphological traits, harvest index, yield, and yield components of sesame were measured.
 
Results
The results showed that the effect of different amounts of nitrogen, weed competition, and sesame varieties on yield and yield components were significant. The interaction effects of nitrogen and sesame varieties on the leaf area index, number of capsules per plant, 1000-grain weight, and harvest index of sesame were significant. Increasing nitrogen improved LAI but weed interference reduced the number of capsules per plant by 23 percent. The effect of weed on 1000 grain weight showed that weed competition decreased this trait by 7.5 percent. The effects of nitrogen, cultivar, and weed competition on grain and biological yield were significant, so that the highest grain yield (158.06 gm-2) belonged to the 100 kg N treatment and between different varieties of sesame obtained from the Behbahan local variety(151.38 gm-2). Compared to the control (no nitrogen) the highest level of nitrogen treatment increased 31 percent in biological yield. In weed-free conditions, the Biological yield was more than the weed-infested treatment, so that the weed control increased the biological yield by 24 percent.
 
Discussion
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the cultivation of Behbahan local variety with the application of 100 kg N, under Omidieh regional conditions, has been Improved many traits of sesame, including plant height, leaf area index, number of capsules per plant, and 1000 grain weight that this improvement was due to the get maximum yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biomass
  • Cultivar
  • Harvest index
  • Interference
  • Leaf area index

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