عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Objectives
In recent years, the desertification caused by climate change and human activity is one of the most important causes of dust particles. The occurrence of dust during the growth of crops (especially wheat) is one of the most substantial risks in crop production in western and southern regions of Iran. Thus, in these areas, an accurate estimate of dust-particle damage in crop production has great importance. Therefore, the study of the effects of dust particles on crop growth is very important.
Materials and Methods
In order to study the effects of dust on grain yield and physiological and biochemical traits of wheat, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at the research field, the campus of agriculture and natural resources, Razi University, Kermanshah in 2013-2014. The first factor included two bread wheat cultivars (Pishgam and Zarin) and one durum wheat cultivar (Behrang) and the second factor was applied with the aim to simulate the effect of sprinkler irrigation on the removing of dust particles on the leaf surface with two levels: washing and non-washing treatments of wheat C.
With respect to the results, in the canopy non-washing treatment, Pishtaz and Behrang cultivars had the highest (6.91 ton ha-1) and the lowest (4.97 ton ha-1) grain yield respectively. The canopy washing treatment compared to the non-washing treatment significantly increased grain yield (18% on average) and its components (without 1000 grains weight), biological yield, harvest index, and some physiological traits, including leaf photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, maximum efficiency of photosystem II, survival index, and some biochemical traits, such as leaf soluble proteins, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids, but it had no significant effect on transpiration rate. The lowest and the highest reduction in grain yield under air dust particles are related to Pishgam (13%) and Behrang (28%) respectively. Particles with 0.3 micrometers diameter or less formed most of the dust particles in the air.
It seems that the deposition of this size of particles in stomata pores is the main reason for stomatal plugging, and therefore, the reduction in stomatal conductance and the reduction of leaf photosynthesis rate and the decrease of grain yield reduction. Stomatal plugging by dust particles may cause less water loss and the increase in relative water content as a result. These findings suggest that, in the case of dust-particle occurrence, leaf washing with sprinkler irrigation compared with traditional irrigation method may cause significant increase in grain yield and its components and physiological and biochemical traits in wheat in this area and similar areas.
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