بررسی تأثیرات سوء ریزگردها بر عملکرد دانه و برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیک و بیوشیمیایی گندم در غرب ایران

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

10.22055/ppd.2019.21856.1470

چکیده

چکیده
بهمنظوربررسی میزان و نحوه تأثیر ریزگردها بر عملکرد و برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی گندم در منطقه کرمانشاه، این تحقیق بهصورتآزمایش فاکتوریلدرقالبطرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی و با چهارتکراردرسالزراعی 93-1392در پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه انجام شد. فاکتوراولشامل دو رقم گندم نان (پیشگام و زرین) و یک رقم دوروم (بهرنگ) و فاکتور دوم با هدف شبیه‌سازی اثرات آبیاری بارانی و زدودن ذرات ریزگرد بر سطح برگ‌ها در دو سطح شامل: شستشو و عدم شستشوی سطح تاج‌پوشش گندم بودند. بر اساس نتایج، در شرایط عدم شستشوی سطح تاج‌پوشش رقم پیشگام بیشترین و بهرنگ کمترین عملکرد دانه را دارا بودند (به‌ترتیب 91/6 و 97/4 تن در هکتار). تیمار شستشوی تاج‌پوشش در مقایسه با تیمار عدم شستشو به‌طور معنی‌داری موجب افزایش عملکرد دانه (به‌طور متوسط 18 درصد) و اجزاء آن به غیر از وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک و شاخص برداشت شد. همچنین سرعت فتوسنتز، هدایت روزنه‌ای، کارایی فتوشیمیایی فتوسیستم II و شاخص زنده‌مانی برگ‌ها، غلظت پروتئین‌های محلول، کلروفیل b و کارتنوئیدها را به‌طور معنی‌دار افزایش داد ولی بر راندمان تعرق اثر معنی‌دار نداشت. ذرات با قطر 3/0 میکرومتر و کمتر، بیشترین نسبت از ذرات ریزگرد را تشکیل داده بودند. به نظر می‌رسد که بسته شدن روزنه‌ها در اثر رسوب این ریزگردها دلیل اصلی کاهش هدایت روزنه‌ای و در نتیجه، کاهش سرعت فتوسنتز برگ‌ها و عملکرد دانه باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Dust Particles on Grain Yield and Some of the Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Wheat in West of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zeynab Sharifi 1
  • Mohsen Saeidi 2
  • Eiraj Nosrati 3
  • Hasan Heidary 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Agronomy, Department of Plant Production Engineering and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Recourses, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Production Engineering and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Recourses, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Production Engineering and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Recourses, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
In recent years, the desertification caused by climate change and human activity is one of the most important causes of dust particles. The occurrence of dust during the growth of crops (especially wheat) is one of the most substantial risks in crop production in western and southern regions of Iran. Thus, in these areas, an accurate estimate of dust-particle damage in crop production has great importance. Therefore, the study of the effects of dust particles on crop growth is very important.
 
Materials and Methods
In order to study the effects of dust on grain yield and physiological and biochemical traits of wheat, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at the research field, the campus of agriculture and natural resources, Razi University, Kermanshah in 2013-2014. The first factor included two bread wheat cultivars (Pishgam and Zarin) and one durum wheat cultivar (Behrang) and the second factor was applied with the aim to simulate the effect of sprinkler irrigation on the removing of dust particles on the leaf surface with two levels: washing and non-washing treatments of wheat C.
 
Results
With respect to the results, in the canopy non-washing treatment, Pishtaz and Behrang cultivars had the highest (6.91 ton ha-1) and the lowest (4.97 ton ha-1) grain yield respectively. The canopy washing treatment compared to the non-washing treatment significantly increased grain yield  (18% on average) and its components (without 1000 grains weight), biological yield, harvest index, and some physiological traits, including leaf photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, maximum efficiency of photosystem II, survival index, and some biochemical traits, such as leaf soluble proteins, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids, but it had no significant effect on transpiration rate. The lowest and the highest reduction in grain yield under air dust particles are related to Pishgam (13%) and Behrang (28%) respectively. Particles with 0.3 micrometers diameter or less  formed most of the dust particles in the air.
 
Discussion
It seems that the deposition of this size of particles in stomata pores is the main reason for stomatal plugging, and therefore, the reduction in stomatal conductance and the reduction of leaf photosynthesis rate and the decrease of grain yield reduction. Stomatal plugging by dust particles may cause less water loss and the increase in relative water content as a result. These findings suggest that, in the case of dust-particle occurrence, leaf washing with sprinkler irrigation compared with traditional irrigation method may cause significant increase in grain yield and its components and physiological and biochemical traits in wheat in this area and similar areas.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carotenoids
  • Maximum efficiency of photosystem II
  • Photosynthesis
  • Relative water content

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