ارزیابی برخی ارقام گل داوودی باغچه‌ای (Chrysanthemum) با استفاده از صفات مورفولوژیک در شرایط بیرانشهر استان لرستان

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد علوم باغبانی، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه‌ لرستان، خرم‌آباد، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه‌ لرستان، خرم‌آباد، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه‌ لرستان، خرم‌آباد، ایران

چکیده

گل داوودی از مهم‌ترین گیاهان زینتی است که علاوه بر گل بریدنی، به‌عنوان گیاه باغچه‌ای، گلدانی و دارویی در عرصه جهانی به‌شمار می‌رود. کاربردهای متعدد این گل در زندگی امروزی نیاز به یک برنامه اصلاحی برای افزایش تولید را سبب شده است. تنوع ژنتیکی 15 رقم داوودی باغچه‌ای در سال 1395 بر اساس صفات ریخت‌شناختی و انتخاب ارقام مناسب جهت کاشت در زیبایی فضایسبز،میادینوپارک‌هادر قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در بیرانشهر، استان لرستان ارزیابی گردید. بر اساس تجزیه واریانس داده‌ها اکثر صفات مورد بررسی در ارقام دارای تفاوت معنی‌دار (01/0 (p≤ بودند. نتایج ضریب همبستگی نشان داد که بین سطح برگ با عرض برگ، قطر دمبرگ و تعداد برگ همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌داری در سطح احتمال یک درصد وجود دارد. بیشترین همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌دار (99/0r=) بین تعداد گل در بوته و تعداد گلچه‌های زبانه‌ای وجود داشت. نتایج تجزیه به عامل‌ها توانست هفت عامل را شناسایی کند که 89 درصد تغییرات میان صفات را توجیه نموند. تجزیه خوشه‌ای ارقام در فاصله اقلیدسی 68/26، به دو گروه اصلی تقسیم‌بندی شدند. بر اساس نتایج در بین صفات مورد مطالعه اندازه برگ، تعداد گلچه‌زبانه، ارتفاع شاخه، تعداد انشعاب و تعداد گل در بوته مهم‌ترین صفات برای تشخیص تنوع ارقام داوودی بودند. با بکارگیری برخی از ارقام متعلق به کلاستر اول با ارتفاع کمتر و ارقام موجود در کلاستر دوم با تعداد برگ و گل بیشتر به‌عنوان والد می‌توان چرخه جدیدی از به‌نژادی گل داوودی را آغاز نمود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Some Chrysanthemum Cultivars Using Morphological Traits in Beiran-Shahr, Lorestan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shirin Taghipour 1
  • Abdollah Ehteshamnia 2
  • Hamed Khodayari 3
  • Hassan Mumivand 2
1 M.Sc. Student of Horticultural Science, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Science, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Chrysanthemum, due to numerous applications in floriculture and medicinal industries has been considered one of the most important ornamental plants and medicinal plants in the global area. In addition to being used as a cut flower, it also has a special place among potted flowers and gardens. Also, it is used as a medicinal plant with strong healing properties in traditional Chinese medicine and considered to treat eye diseases, headaches, colds, and etc. However, only a few reports have been presented in the field of genetic diversity of Chrysanthemums by morphological and molecular markers. Therefore, there is a need for further identification of germplasm and cultivars of Chrysanthemums in Iran. This study aimed to assess the genetic diversity of 15 cultivars of Chrysanthemums based on morphological characteristics and selection of cultivar adapted to Khorramabad region.
 
Materials and Methods
This experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications in the area of Beiran-Shahr, Lorestan province in 2017. Twenty-one morphological characteristics were determined from fresh materials. These traits in accordance with the given instructions describing World UPOV Chrysanthemums, were measured. Quantitative measurements were carried out on 10 leaves per cultivars. Some variables including diameter (branches, petioles, discs, buds and flowers) were measured by digital caliper. The traits such as length and width of leaf, plant height, length and width of the tab florets with ruler were measured.
 
Results
Based on data analysis most of the traits in cultivars showed significant differences (p≤0.01). Results showed that the correlation between leaf area with leaf width, petiole diameter and number of leaves has a positive and significant correlation with the probability level of 5%. The most significant and negative correlation (r = 0.99) was observed between number of flowers per plant and number of florets. Based on the results obtained from principal components analysis, seven independent and major components with Eigen values greater than one could explain 89 percent of the total variation. The first component, verified 24.4 percent of the total variation. Cluster analysis of cultivars in Euclidean distance of 26.68, was categorized into two main groups. The cultivars "Avadis" and "Norooz3" in the first group were distinguished from the rest of the cultivars with the lowest height. The "Fariba"; "Ashraf" and "Andiea" cultivars were placed in the group and most abundant cultivars.
 
Discussion
Based on the results, leaf size, plant height, number of branches and number of flowers in plant traits were most important in recognizing the diversity of cultivars Chrysanthemum. By using some cultivars belonging to the first cluster with less height and cultivars in the second cluster with more leaves and flowers as a parent, a new cycle of Chrysanthemum breeding program can be initiated.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cluster analysis
  • Component analysis
  • Correlation Coefficient
  • Genetic diversity

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