تأثیر اسید‌سالیسیلیک بر برخی خصوصیات رشدی و بیوشیمیایی زیتون رقم "کنسروالیا" (Olea europaea cv. ‘Konservalia’) تحت شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم باغبانی، گروه باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 استاد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش به ‌منظور بررسی اثر چهار سطح مختلف اسید‌سالیسیلیک (صفر،نیم،یکو دومیلی‌مولار) و سه سطح آبیاری (100، 66 و 33 درصد تبخیر و تعرق گیاه) بر برخی خصوصیات رشدی وبیوشیمیایی نهال زیتون
رقم "کنسروالیا" به‌صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1394-1395 اجرا گردید. نتایج مقایسه میانگین داده‌ها نشان داد که در سه سطح آبیاری (
ETc 100 درصد، ETc 66 درصد و ETc 33 درصد) مقدار وزن ‌تر و خشک‌ریشه، ساقه و برگ در گیاهان تیمار‌شده با اسید‌سالیسیلیک نسبت به گیاهان تیمار‌نشده با اسید‌سالیسیلیک از مقادیر بالاتری برخوردار بود. همچنین نتایج مقایسه میانگین برهمکنش آبیاری و اسید‌سالیسیلیک بر محتوای کلروفیل، کربوهیدرات محلول کل و پرولین برگ نشان داد که با کاهش مقدار آب آبیاری از 100 به 66 و 33 درصد تبخیر و تعرق گیاه، محتوی کلروفیل (کلروفیل a، b و کل) کاهش یافت در حالی‌که محتوی کلروفیل، کربوهیدرات محلول کل و پرولین برگ در نهال‌های آبیاری‌شده با 66 و 33 درصد تبخیر و تعرق گیاه و محلول‌پاشی‌شده با 2 میلی‌مولار اسید‌سالیسیلیک نسبت به گیاهان محلول‌پاشی‌نشده از مقدار بالاتری برخوردار بود. همچنین نتایج آنالیز تکراری نشان داد که کمترین مقدار محتوای کلروفیل پس از 90 روز پس از اعمال تیمار مربوط به گیاهان آبیاری‌شده با 33 درصد تبخیر و تعرق گیاه بود در حالی‌که کمترین مقدار پرولین پس از 90 روز پس از تیمار، در هر دو رژیم آبیاری 66 و 33 درصد تبخیر و تعرق گیاه در گیاهان محلول‌پاشی نشده با اسید‌سالیسیلیک گزارش گردید. لذا به نظر می‌رسد که محلول‌پاشی با غلظت 2 میلی‌مولار اسید‌سالیسیلیک در تیمار آبیاری 66 و 33 درصد موجب کاهش اثرات منفی تنش خشکی در گیاه زیتون ‌شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Salicylic Acid on Some Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Olive (Olea europaea cv. ‘Konservalia’) Under Water Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Narges Shafiei 1
  • Esmaeil Khaleghi 2
  • Noorollah Moallemi 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Horticultural Science, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Olive (Olea europaea) is one of the most important fruit trees in the pomology industry of Iran. Statistics shows that this fruit tree is cultivated in more than of 102 thousand hectares of territory of Iran. Due to severe water shortages, it is necessary to make use of methods with objectives to reducing the negative effects of drought on plant and to increasing water use efficiency. Previous studies stated that plant growth regulators such as salicylic acid could apply to reducing the adverse effects of environmental stresses. Salicylic acid (SA) influences various physiological and biochemical functions in plants and has diverse effects on the tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous SA application on biochemical traits of ‘Konservalia' olive leaf under 100 %, 66 % and 33 % ETcrop by analyzing chlorophyll content, total soluble carbohydrate and proline.
 
Materials and Methods
The study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of water deficit (100, 66 and 33 percent of evapotranspiration (ETcrop)) and four concentrations of salicylic acid (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM) on fresh and dry root weight, stem and leaf and leaf number, leaf area, stem diameter, leaf proline, total soluble sugars, chlorophyll content as a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Two- year old olive trees (Olea europaea cv. ‘Konservalia’) were used. Seventy- plants were grown in 11 L pots, containing a mixture of field soil (73.2 % sand, 13.3 % silt and 13.5 % clay) and manure. Plants were sprayed with four concentrations of salicylic acid and irrigated every ten days, according to the amount of evatranspiration of plants (ETcrop). Parameters such as leaf proline and total soluble carbohydrates content, chlorophyll content were measured three times at intervals of once every 30 days after treatment. Data analysis was performed using MSTATC and SAS software and mean comparison was done by Duncan's multiple range test at 5 and 1 % probability
 
Results
The results showed that leaf proline and total soluble carbohydrates increased while chlorophyll content (chlorophyll a, b and total) decreased with increasing levels of water deficit. Results also showed that the interaction of salicylic acid and irrigation had a significant effect on fresh and dry root weight, stem and leaf, leaf area and plant height at p 
Discussion
In this study, the role of SA in plant tolerance to abiotic stresses such as heat, heavy metal, and osmotic stress was reported. The results showed that 2 mM SA application alleviated the adverse effects of drought stress (66 and 33 % ETcrop) in young olive trees through the improvement of chlorophyll content, enhancing leaf total soluble carbohydrate and proline content which can lead to osmotic adjustment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Amino acids
  • Osmatic regulators
  • Plant growth regulators

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