مقایسه برخی شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیکی مؤثر در بهبود تحمل به سرمای ارقام دانه‌دار و بی‌دانه انگور در فصل‌های رشد و رکود

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد فیزیولوژی گیاهی، گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

چکیده

بهترین راهکار جهت افزایش تحمل گیاهان در برابر تنش‌ها، شناخت ویژگی‌های خاص ارقام می‌باشد که هم برای کاشت در آب و هواهای مختلف و هم برای برنامه‌های اصلاحی ارقام نیاز است. به این دلیل بررسی دقیق شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیکی ارقام بومی هر منطقه در مراحل مختلف رشد انگور امری ضروری است. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی برخی از شاخص‌های مؤثر در تحمل به سرما در پنج رقم انگور شامل ’بی‌دانه سفید‘، ’بی‌دانه قرمز‘، ’لعل‘، ’صاحبی‘ و ’فخری‘ در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی (RBCD) با سه تکرار انجام شد. نمونه‌برداری از ارقام مورد بررسی در پنج نوبت انجام شد. در طول فصل رکود (زمستان 1391) سه نوبت نمونه‌برداری از ساقه‌های حاوی جوانه صورت گرفت و شاخص‌های مقدار پرولین، نشت الکترولیت و میزان قند محلول اندازه‌گیری شد. در فصل رشد (بهار سال 1392) دو نوبت نمونه‌برداری از برگ‌های ارقام انجام گرفت و شاخص‌های مقدار پرولین، مالون‌دی‌آلدهید، قند محلول، پروتئین‌کل و میزان فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدان پراکسیداز، پلی‌فنل‌اکسیداز و آسکوربات‌پراکسیداز بررسی گردید. نتایج نشان داد که در هر دو فصل رکود و رشد در تمام شاخص‌های مورد بررسی تفاوت معنی‌داری در بین رقم‌ها وجود داشت، به‌طوری‌که در فصل زمستان رقم ’فخری‘ با کمترین میزان نشت الکترولیت در هر سه مرحله نمونه‌برداری (12/33 میکروزیمنس بر گرم در دی‌ماه، 17/23 میکروزیمنس بر گرم در بهمن‌ماه و 89/12 میکروزیمنس بر گرم در اسفند‌ماه) آمادگی بیشتری برای تحمل تنش‌های محیطی نسبت به سایر رقم‌ها نشان داد. در فصل بهار در مراحل اولیه رشد جوانه‌ها و آغاز شکوفایی گل‌ها رقم ’بی‌دانه قرمز‘ با کمترین مقدار مالون‌دی‌آلدهید (7/3 میکرومول بر گرم در مرحله 3-4 برگی جوانه‌ها و 4 میکرومول بر گرم در آغاز شکوفایی گل‌ها) و بیشترین مقدار پرولین (27/10 میکرومول بر گرم در مرحله 3-4 برگی جوانه‌ها و 39/7 میکرومول بر گرم در آغاز شکوفایی گل‌ها) و پروتئین (با 26/0 میلی‌گرم بر گرم در مرحله 3-4 برگی جوانه‌ها و 23/0 میلی‌گرم بر گرم در آغاز شکوفایی گل‌ها) تحمل بیشتری نسبت به تنش‌ها در مقایسه با رقم‌های مورد بررسی در این پژوهش داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Comparison of Some Effective Physiological Characters to Improve Cold Tolerance of Seeded and Seedless Grapevine Cultivars During the Dormancy and Growing Seasons

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mousa Rasouli 1
  • Parvaneh Rustaei 2
  • Arash Babaei 3
1 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science and Land Scape Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran
2 M.Sc. Graduate of Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
The best way to increase the tolerance of plants against stresses is to know the specific characteristics of the cultivars, which is needed both for planting in different climatic conditions and for breeding programs of these cultivars. For this reason, the exact study of the physiological traits of native cultivars of each region in the various stages of growing of grape is necessary.
 
Materials and Methods
Sampling was done in five times. During the dormancy season (Winter 2013) three times samplings of stems with buds were done and biochemical parameters of proline, electrolyte leakage and soluble sugar were measured. The aim of this study was to investigate some of the effective parameters of cold tolerance in five cultivars of grapevine including “Bidaneh Sefid”, “Bidaneh Ghermez”, “Lal”, “Sahebi” and “Fakhri” in a randomized complete block design (RBCD) with three replications. In the growing season (spring 2013) two times samplings were collected from the leaves of cultivars and biochemical parameters such as proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), soluble sugars, photosynthesis pigments, total protein, activity of antioxidant peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and ascorbate peroxidase enzymes were measured.
 
Results
Result showed that there were significant differences between the cultivars in both winter and spring and in all considered characteristics. The winter cultivar of 'Fakhri' with minimal electrolyte leakage in all three times of sampling (33.12 µSiemens/gr Fw in January, 23.17 µSiemens/gr Fw in February and12.89 µSiemens/gr Fw in March) was more prepared to tolerate environmental stresses than other cultivars. In the spring, in both sampling times of spring season, cultivar of “Bidaneh Ghermez” with the least amount of malondialdehyde (3.7 µmol/gr FW in late April and 4 µmol/gr FW in early May) and the highest proline (10.27 µmol/gr FW late April and 7.39 µmol/gr FW in early May), and protein (respectively 0.26 mgr/gr FW late April and 0.23 mgr/gr FW in early May) were more prepared to tolerate environmental stresses than other cultivars that were examined in this study. The cultivar of “Lal” with the highest level of malondialdehyde (9.52 µmol/gr FW in late April and 4.52 µmol/gr FW in early May) showed lower relative stress endurance compared with other studied cultivars. In the winter, cultivar of 'Fakhri' had higher stress forbearance than other cultivars. Also, in the spring, cultivar of “Bidaneh Ghermez” had more and “Lal” had the lowest stress endurance than other cultivars that were examined in this study.
 
Discussion
Considering all the traits studied, it can be stated that in winter tolerance of seeded cultivars is more suitable than seedless cultivars. Seedless cultivars are more sensitive to temperature variations and generate severe reactions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant enzymes activity
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Proline
  • Soluble sugars
  • Total protein

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