پاسخ ژنوتیپ‌های جدید کلزا (Brassica napus) به قطع آبیاری انتهای فصل درآب و هوای نیمه‌خشک

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 استاد مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

4 استادیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

5 استاد، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در تحقیقی که در سال زراعی 95-1394در مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذرکرج انجام شد پاسخ 17 ژنوتیپ جدید کلزا به دو نوع رژیم آبیاری (آبیاری کامل در طول فصل رشد و قطع آبیاری از مرحله خورجین‌دهی تا برداشت) بررسی شد. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. به منظور گزینش متحمل‌ترین ژنوتیپ‌ها تحت شرایط آبیاری نرمال و قطع آبیاری، شاخص‌های تحمل به تنش و کارایی مصرف آب زراعی محاسبه شد. در تیمار قطع آبیاری ژنوتیپ Lauren با داشتن صفات زراعی مناسب مانند ارتفاع بوته (cm9/158 )، تعداد خورجین در بوته (6/158)، تعداد دانه در خورجین (6/18)، وزن هزار دانه (44/3 گرم)، ماده خشک (kg/ha15471)، عملکرد دانه (kg/ha3/3854)، درصد روغن دانه (33/43) و عملکرد روغن (kg/ha 3/1668) به‌عنوان ژنوتیپ برتر شناخته شد. این ژنوتیپ در شرایط آبیاری نرمال نیز از نظر صفات ذکر‌شده جزو ژنوتیپ‌های مناسب بود. شایان ذکر است که ژنوتیپ Alonso تحت تنش بعد از Lauren بیشترین عملکرد دانه (kg/ha 3/3776) و روغن
(
kg/ha1622) را داشت. شاخص‌های STI و GMP بیشترین همبستگی را با عملکرد دانه در شرایط تنش و غیرتنش داشتند و برای گزینش ژنوتیپ‌های برتر مناسبند. بر همین اساس مقاوم‌ترین ژنوتیپ‌ها به تنش Lauren، Zorica، Alonso و Zlanta بودند. بیشترین کارایی مصرف آب زراعی (کیلوگرم در هکتار بر میلی‌متر) در شرایط نرمال مربوط به ژنوتیپ‌های Zorica (92/0) و Artist و Lauren (88/0) بود، در حالی‌که در شرایط قطع آبیاری بالاترین رکوردها در ژنوتیپ‌های Lauren(86/0)، Alonso(84/0) وHL3721(82/0) به‌دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of New Genotypes of Rapeseed (Brassica napus) to Late Season Withholding Irrigation under Semi-Arid Climate

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamed Eyni Nargeseh 1
  • Majid AghaAlikhani 2
  • Amir Hosein Shirani Rad 3
  • Ali Mokhtasi-Bidgoli 4
  • Seyed Ali Mohammad Modares Sanavy 5
1 Ph.D. Candidate of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Professor of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
5 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Water deficit stress is one of the most important environmental stresses which affect the crop production. Genetic improvement or application of drought tolerant genotypes is recommended to increase crop production under water restricted conditions. The objective of the current study is investigating the withholding irrigation effect in terminal stages of the growing season on agronomic performance of rapeseed new genotypes in a semi-arid climate.
 
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted during 2015-2016 growing season in Karaj, Iran. Experimental factors (two water irrigation regimes and 17 rapeseed genotypes) were investigated with factorial arrangement of treatments based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. In this study, several different traits including plant height, number of siliqueper plant, number of grain per silique, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, biomass, oil percentage and oil yield were measured. To determine the most tolerant genotypes, stress tolerance indices (SSI, TOL, STI and GMP) were calculated under stress (withholding irrigation from silique setting stage until the end of the growing season) and non-stress (normal irrigation) conditions. Also, agronomic water use efficiency (WUEagr) was calculated for both irrigation conditions.
 
Results
Mean comparison of the interaction between withholding irrigation and genotypes showed that the responses of genotypes were different in terms of plant height, number of siliqueper plant, number of grain per silique, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, biomass, and oil yield at irrigation different treatments. Finally under withholding irrigation treatment from silique setting stage until the end of the growing season, Lauren hybrid was identified as the superior genotype due to suitable agronomic traits such as plant height (158.9 cm), number of siliqueper plant (158.6), number of grain per silique(18.6), 1000-grain weight (3.44 g), biomass (15471 kg.ha-1), grain yield (3854.3 kg.ha-1), oil percentage (43.33%) and oil yield (1668.3 kg.ha-1). Based on the stress tolerance indices among 17 rapeseed genotypes, the most tolerant genotypes were Lauren, Zorica, Alonso and Zlanta. Finally with considering to WUEagr (Kg.ha-1.mm-1), Zorica (0.92), Artist and Lauren genotypes (0.88) had the highest WUEagr under normal irrigation conditions, while Alonso (0.86), Lauren (0.84) and KL3721 (0.82) had the highest WUEagr under withholding irrigation conditions.
 
Discussion
Generally in this study, the amount of the studied traits was decreased under conditions of withholding irrigation compared to the full irrigation. Yield components such as silique number per plant, grain number per silique and 1000-grain weight could be considered as key traits affecting rapeseed grain yield under withholding irrigation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grain yield
  • Oil yield
  • Silique setting
  • Water deficit stress

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