اثر سیستم‌های مختلف تغذیه‌ای با کودهای نیتروژنه و فسفره بر برخی صفات کمی و کیفی ریحان

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی و مرکز تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت و آگرواکولوژی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

چکیده

کاربرد تلفیقی کودهای شیمیایی و زیستی می‌تواند عملکرد کمی و کیفی گیاهان دارویی را ارتقاء بخشد. به همین منظور آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1393 انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش ترکیب کودی نیتروژنه و فسفره شامل،100 درصد شیمیایی براساس آزمون خاک، 100 درصد زیستی (برای نیتروژن، ازتوباکتر کروکوکوم و آزوسپیریلیوم لیپوفروم و برای فسفر، سدوموناس پوتیدا و سدوموناس فلورسنس) و سیستم تلفیق 50 درصد کود شیمیایی با کود زیستی بود. نتایج نشان داد که ترکیب‌های مختلف کود نیتروژنه و فسفره (شیمیایی و زیستی) و همچنین برهمکنش این دو، بر ارتفاع بوته، تعداد برگ، عملکرد برگ و اندام هوایی، درصد و عملکرد اسانس، اثر معنی‌داری داشت. بیشترین تعداد برگ در بوته در تیمارهای کود نیتروژن 100 درصد شیمیایی در تلفیق کود زیستی و 50 درصد شیمیایی فسفره و تلفیق کود زیستی و 50 درصد شیمیایی فسفر در تلفیق کود زیستی و 50 درصد شیمیایی نیتروژن به‌ترتیب با میانگین 72/54 و 44/54 برگ در بوته به‌دست آمد. برهمکنش سیستم‌های تغذیه‌ای نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد برگ و عملکرد اسانس در سیستم تلفیقی کود زیستی و 50 درصد شیمیایی فسفر در تلفیق کود زیستی و 50 درصد شیمیایی نیتروژن به‌ترتیب با میانگین 33/596 کیلوگرم در هکتار و 56/6 لیتر در هکتار بود. کمترین درصد و عملکرد اسانس در تیمار شاهد (عدم مصرف کود) مشاهده شد.استفاده سیستم تلفیقی کود نیتروژنه و فسفره باعث افزایش میانگین ترکیبات تشکیل‌دهنده اسانس از قبیل لینالول، کارواکرول و اژنول نسبت به شاهد شد. نتایج این تحقیق حاکی از آن است که کاربرد کودهای زیستی فسفره و نیتروژنه در ترکیب با 50 درصد کود شیمیایی در بهبود صفات کمی و کیفی گیاه دارویی ریحان تأثیر مثبتی داشته و بجای مصرف مداوم کود شیمیایی می‌توان با استفاده بهینه از نهاده‌های زیستی در راستای کشاورزی پایدار و کاهش آلودگی ناشی از مصرف کودهای شیمیایی نیتروژنه و فسفره گام برداشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Different Nutritional Systems with Nitrogen and Phosphorous Fertilizers on Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Aghighi Shahverdi 1
  • Majid Amini Dahaghi 2
  • Hojjat Ataei Somagh 3
  • Behnam Mamivand 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Crop Physiology, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural and Medicinal Plant Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
3 M.Sc. Student of Agronomy and Agro Ecology, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Aiming to remove or reduce the chemical input in order to obtain high quality and yield sustainability, plants production in sustainable agriculture. On the other hand, the combined application of chemical and bio-fertilizers can improve yield and quality of medicinal plants. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), a member of Lamiaceae family, is an annual plant and is widely used as a vegetable and as an aromatic plant. Considering the importance of medicinal herbs and the global trend for their production and reproduction in sustainable and low-input agricultural systems as well as a lack of research on the response of Basil's medicinal plant to the combined nutritional systems (chemical and biological), the aim of this study was to compare the effects of various nutritional systems with chemical and biological nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers as high-quality nutrients on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Basil.
Materials and Methods
This research was conducted as a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications at the Research Center of Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University, Tehran, in 2014. The experimental factors included nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer combinations, 100% chemical based on a soil test, 100% biological (for nitrogen, Azotobacter crocococcus and Azospirillium lipophorum, for phosphorus, and Pseudomonas fluorescence) and combining a system of 50% chemical fertilizers with biofertilizers. To provide nitrogen fertilizer from the source of urea containing 46% pure nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer were used triple superphosphate containing 46% phosphorus oxide (P2O5). Biofertilizers used to provide nitrogen are a mixture of Azotobacter crocum (Azeto-5 strain) and Azopyrillium lipophorum (93 strain), and for phosphorus from the mixture of Pseudomonas putida (P-168 strain) and Pseudomonas fluorescence (P-169 strain), all of which have a concentration 107 CFU/ml provided by the National Institute of Soil and Water Research of Iran.
Results
The results showed that different combinations of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers and also the interaction between these two had a significant effect on plant height, the number of leaves and shoots yields, percentage, and yield of essential oil. The highest number of leaves per plant was found in treatments N2 × P4 (100% chemical nitrogen with combined of bio-fertilizer and 50% chemical phosphorus) and N4 × P4 (combin of bio-fertilizer and 50% chemical  hosphorus combined with bio-fertilizer and 50% chemical nitrogen) respectively with the mean of 54.72 and 54.44 leaves per plant. Interaction of nutrition systems showed that the highest leaves and essential oil yield was in combination N4 × P4 respectively with the average 596.33 kg.ha-1 and 6.56 lit.ha-1. The uses of combination system of nitrogen and phosphorus increased the mean composition of the oils constitutive such as Linalool, Carvacrol and Eugenol compared to control.
Discussion
The results of this study indicate that the use of bio-fertilizers phosphorus and nitrogen, either alone or in combination with 50% chemical fertilizer to improve the quantity and quality of basil had a positive impact. They can, instead of continuous use of chemical fertilizers, be used to optimize the biological inputs for sustainable agriculture and reduce the pollution caused by the use of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biological fertilizer
  • Carvacrol
  • Chlorophyll index
  • Essential Oils
  • Leaves Yield

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