عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Objectives
Aiming to remove or reduce the chemical input in order to obtain high quality and yield sustainability, plants production in sustainable agriculture. On the other hand, the combined application of chemical and bio-fertilizers can improve yield and quality of medicinal plants. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), a member of Lamiaceae family, is an annual plant and is widely used as a vegetable and as an aromatic plant. Considering the importance of medicinal herbs and the global trend for their production and reproduction in sustainable and low-input agricultural systems as well as a lack of research on the response of Basil's medicinal plant to the combined nutritional systems (chemical and biological), the aim of this study was to compare the effects of various nutritional systems with chemical and biological nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers as high-quality nutrients on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Basil.
Materials and Methods
This research was conducted as a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications at the Research Center of Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University, Tehran, in 2014. The experimental factors included nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer combinations, 100% chemical based on a soil test, 100% biological (for nitrogen, Azotobacter crocococcus and Azospirillium lipophorum, for phosphorus, and Pseudomonas fluorescence) and combining a system of 50% chemical fertilizers with biofertilizers. To provide nitrogen fertilizer from the source of urea containing 46% pure nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer were used triple superphosphate containing 46% phosphorus oxide (P2O5). Biofertilizers used to provide nitrogen are a mixture of Azotobacter crocum (Azeto-5 strain) and Azopyrillium lipophorum (93 strain), and for phosphorus from the mixture of Pseudomonas putida (P-168 strain) and Pseudomonas fluorescence (P-169 strain), all of which have a concentration 107 CFU/ml provided by the National Institute of Soil and Water Research of Iran.
The results showed that different combinations of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers and also the interaction between these two had a significant effect on plant height, the number of leaves and shoots yields, percentage, and yield of essential oil. The highest number of leaves per plant was found in treatments N2 × P4 (100% chemical nitrogen with combined of bio-fertilizer and 50% chemical phosphorus) and N4 × P4 (combin of bio-fertilizer and 50% chemical hosphorus combined with bio-fertilizer and 50% chemical nitrogen) respectively with the mean of 54.72 and 54.44 leaves per plant. Interaction of nutrition systems showed that the highest leaves and essential oil yield was in combination N4 × P4 respectively with the average 596.33 kg.ha-1 and 6.56 lit.ha-1. The uses of combination system of nitrogen and phosphorus increased the mean composition of the oils constitutive such as Linalool, Carvacrol and Eugenol compared to control.
The results of this study indicate that the use of bio-fertilizers phosphorus and nitrogen, either alone or in combination with 50% chemical fertilizer to improve the quantity and quality of basil had a positive impact. They can, instead of continuous use of chemical fertilizers, be used to optimize the biological inputs for sustainable agriculture and reduce the pollution caused by the use of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers.
Adams, R. P. (2001). Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ uadrupole mass spectroscopy. USA: Allured: Carol Stream.
Ajimoddin, I., Vasundhara, M., Radhakrishna, D., Biradar, S. L. and Rao, G. G. E. (2005). Integrated nutrient management studies in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Indian Perfume, 49(1), 95-101.
Akbarinia, A., Jalilvand, H. and Kazemi, F. (2009). The cultivation of medicinal plants (Volume II). Qazvin: Sayehgostar Press. [In Farsi]
Alamimilani, M., Amini, R. and Bndhehag, A. (2014). Effects of organic fertilizers combined with chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of pinto beans. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science, 11(3), 15-29. [In Farsi]
Banchio, E., Xie, X., Zhang, H. and Pare, P.W. 2009. Soil bacteria elevate essential oil accumulation and emissions in sweet basil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(2), 653-657.
Darzi1, M. T., Ghalavand, A. and Rejali, F. (2009). The effects of biofertilizers application on N, P, K
assimilation and seed yield in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 25(1), 1-19. [In Farsi]
Darzi1, M. T., Ghalavand, A., Rejali, F. and Sefidkon, F. (2006). Effects of biofertilizers application on yield and yield components in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 22(4), 276-292. [In Farsi]
Fatma, E. M., El-Zamik, I., Tomader, T., El-Hadidy, H. I., Abd El-Fattah, L. and Seham Salem, H. (2006). The efficiency of bio fertilizers, organic and inorganic amendments application on growth and essential oil of marjoram (Majorana hortensis L.) plants grown in sandy and calcareous. Agriculture. Microbiology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Cairo, Egypt.
Han, H. S. and Lee, K. D. (2006). Effect of inoculation with phosphate and potassium co-in solubilizing bacteria on mineral uptake and growth of pepper and cucumber. Plant, Soil, and Environment, 52(3), 130-136.
Hassanpour, R., Pirdashti, H., Esmaili, M. and Abbasian, A. (2010). Effect of super-nitroplus bio-fertilizer and urea on yield and yield components of sesame. Proceedings of the Eleventh Congress of Agronomy and Plant Breeding,Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran. [In Farsi]
Hassanzadeh, A., Mazaheri, D., Chaeichi, M. R. and Khavazi, K. (2007). Efficiency facilitator bacteria and phosphorus uptake of phosphorus fertilizer on yield and yield components of barley. Pazhohesh and Sazandeghi, 20(4), 111-118. [In Farsi]
Khajehpour, R. (2009). Industrial plants. Esfahan: Jihad University Publications. [In Farsi]
Khalid, A., Hendawy, S. F. and El-Gezawy, E. (2006). Ocimum basilicum L. production under organic farming. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 2(1), 25-32.
Khalil, M. Y. (2006). How-far would Plantago afra L. respond to bio and organic manures amendments. Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 2(1), 12-21.
Khoramdel, S., Amin Ghafuri, O., Rezvani, P. and Nasiri Mahalati, M. (2010). Evaluation of different irrigation regimes associated with the use of biological fertilizers on yield of sesame seed and chlorophyll content. The first National Conference on Sustainable Agriculture and Healthy Crop Production, Gorgan. [In Farsi]
Kokalis-Buerelle, N., Kloepper, J. W. and Reddy, M. S. (2006). Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria as transplant amendments and their affects on indigenous rhizosphere microorganisms. Journal of Applied Soil Ecology, 31(1-2), 91-100.
Larios, F. L., Espinoza, F. H. R., Hernandez, J. L. G., Amador, B. M., Ocampo, H. A. G., Morales, F. A. B. and Poalomino, H. F. (2008). Analysis of agronomic variables of Ocimum basilicum under alternative tillage system and standard organic practices. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 8(1), 157-163.
Makkizadeh, M., Nasrollahzadeh, S., Zehtab Salmasi, S., Chaichi, M. and Khavazi, K. (2011). The effect of organic, biologic and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and quantitative characteristics of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science, 22(1), 1-12. [In Farsi]
Moradi, R. (2009). Effects of biological and organic fertilizers on yield and essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). M.Sc. Thesis, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad. [In Farsi]
Niakan, M. and Ahmadi, A. (2014). Effects of foliar spraying kinetin on growth parameters and
photosynthesis of tomato under different levels of drought stress. Iranian Journal of Plant Physiology, 4(2), 939-947.
Ojaglo, F., Farhvash, F., Hassanzadeh, A. and Poryosef, M. (2007). Effects of Inoculation with Azotobacter bio-fertilizers and phosphate bavar 2 on the yield of safflower. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Islamic Azad University, 3(2), 39-51. [In Farsi]
Omidbaigi, R. (2005). Solutions for production and processing of medicinal plants. Mashhad: Behnashre Publication. [In Farsi]
Rahimi, A., Mehrafarin, A., Naghdi Badi, H. and Khalighi-Sigaroodi, F. (2013). Effects of bio-stimulators and bio-fertilizers on morphological traits of basil (Ocimum bacilicum L.). Annals of Biological Research, 4(5), 146-151.
Rahimzadeh, S., Sohrabi, E., Heydari, G. and Pirzad A. R. (2012). The effect of bio-fertilizers on some morphological characteristics and yield of Dracocephalum moldavica. Iranian Horticultural Sciences, 25(3), 335-343. [In Farsi]
Rezaeichiane, A., Pirzad, A. and Farjami, A. (2014). The effect of bacteria suppliers of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur on seed yield and essential oil of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science, 24(4), 71-83.
Shafaghkalvanagh, J., Zehtab Salmasi, S, Javanshir, A. and Dabbagh Mohammadinasb, A. 2009. The effect of different levels of nitrogen and weed interference on yield and chlorophyll content in soybeans. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science, 19(3), 1-20. [In Farsi]
Sharma, A. K. (2002). Biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture. India: Agro-bios.
Shirzadi, F., Ardakani, M. R. and Asadi Rahmani, H. (2014). The effect of vermicompost and bio-fertilizers on some quantitative characteristics of basil (Ocimum basilicum). Journal of Agroecology, 6(3), 551-542.
Shokofteh, H., Marzi, A. and Ghafari Shahrabadi, S. (2015). The effect of organic fertilizers, chemical and biological phosphorus on yield and essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum). Iranian Horticultural Sciences, 46(1), 119-129. [In Farsi]
Sokhangoy, S. H., Ansari, K. H. and Eradatmand, A.D. (2012). Effect of bio-fertilizers on the performance of Dill (Anethum graveolens L.). Iranian Journal of Plant Physiology, 4 (2), 552-547.
Tahami-Zarandi, S. M. K., Rezvani Moghadam, P. and Jahan, M. (2010). Investigation the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and percentage of oil in Ocimum basilicum L. Journal of Agroecology, 2(1), 63-74.
Tehrani Sharif, H., Sharifi Ashoorabadi, E., Tajali, A. A. and Makizadeh Tafti, M. (2015). Effect of plant nutrition systems on the qualitative and quantitative yield of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 31(2), 283-306. [In Farsi]
Tilak, K. V. B. R., Ranganayaki, N., Pal, K. K., Saxena, A. K., Shekhar Nautiyal, C., Mittal, S., Tripathi, A. K. and Johri, B. N. (2006). Diversity of plant growth and soil health supporting bacteria. Current Science, 89(1), 136-150.
Vinutha, T. (2005). Biochemical studies on Ocimum sp. inoculated with microbial inoculants. M.Sc. Thesis of Agricultural Sciences, University Bangalore, India.
Youssef, A. A., Edri, A. E. and Maa, A. M. (2004). A comparative study of some plant growth regulators
and certain growth hormones producing microorganisms on growth and essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. Plant Annals of Agricultural Science, 49(2), 299-311.