بررسی سازگاری تعدادی از ژنوتیپ‌های زیتون در شرایط آب و هوایی طارم زنجان

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 محقق بخش تحقیقات زراعی علوم باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان زنجان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی سازگاری برخی از ژنوتیپ‌های بومی زیتون آزمایشی با 8 ژنوتیپ در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در ایستگاه تحقیقات زیتون طارم زنجان از سال 1386 لغایت 1390 به‌اجرا درآمد. درختان زیتون با فاصله 6×6 در فروردین 1386 کشت شدند. صفات مختلف رویشی و زایشی اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج مقایسه میانگین صفات رویشی نشان داد که ارتفاع، عرض تاج، سطح مقطع تنه و رشد فصل جاری شاخه درختان زیتون بین ژنوتیپ‌ها دارای تفاوت معنی‌دار بودند. تعداد گل‌آذین در شاخه، تعداد گل در گل‌آذین، درصد گل کامل و درصد نهایی تشکیل میوه در بین ژنوتیپ‌ها دارای تفاوت معنی‌دار بود. ژنوتیپ‌های T2، T3، T7 و G4 با بیش از 120 گل‌آذین در شاخه برتر از بقیه بودند. بیشترین تعداد گل در گل‌آذین در ژنوتیپ‌های T2، T7 و B3 مشاهده شد. وزن میوه بین ژنوتیپ‌ها دارای تفاوت معنی‌دار بود به‌طوری‌که وزن میوه از 3/2 تا 8/9 گرم بین ژنوتیپ‌ها متفاوت بود. ژنوتیپ G4 درشترین میوه را داشت.بیشترین وزن گوشت به ژنوتیپ G4 تعلق داشت. عملکرد میوه در درخت بین ژنوتیپ‌ها دارای تفاوت معنی‌دار بود به‌طوری‌که ژنوتیپ T2 بیشترین عملکرد و ژنوتیپ B1 کمترین عملکرد را داشت. درصد روغن در ماده خشک بین ژنوتیپ‌ها متفاوت بود و ژنوتیپ G4 بیش از 50 درصد روغن در ماده خشک داشت. به‌طورکلی ژنوتیپهای T2 وT7 بر اساس میزان عملکرد بالا و درصد روغن حدود 44 درصد و ژنوتیپ G4با توجه به درشتی میوه (بیش از 9 گرم)، عملکرد نسبتاً خوب (حدود یک تن) و میزان روغن بالا (بیش از 52 درصد در ماده خشک)، به‌عنوان ژنوتیپ‌های امید بخش معرفی می‌شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Some Olive Genotypes Adaptability under Taroum Environmental Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • I. Arji 1
  • M. Norizadeh 2
1 Associated Professor of Crop and Horticultural Science Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Researcher of Crop and Horticultural Science Department, Zanjan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Olive (Olea europaea L.) belongs to Oleaceae family. Olive fruit has been used for oil and table olive. Olive is one of the most important fruit trees around the world. Iran is one of the regions of the world with different wild olive genotypes distributed in different provinces. Olive genotypes are important genetic resources for Iran. These genotypes can be selected as promising genotypes and used in breeding programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate adaptability of 8 olive genotypes from Gorgan and Taroum.
Materials and Methods
This experiment was conducted to evaluate adaptation ability of 8 olive genotypes in Tarrom olive research station during 2007- 2011. Trees were planted under a complete randomized block design with a 6 × 6 distance. Vegetative and reproductive characters of olive trees were measured. The collected data were analyzed with MSTATC and the means were compared with Duncan's multiple test.
Results
Vegetative results showed that tree height, wide, shoot season growth and trunk cross sectional areas were significantly different at 1% between olive genotypes in Tarrom olive station. Inflorescence number per shoot, flower number per inflorescence, perfect flower percent, and final fruit set were significantly different at 1% statistical level. Fruit weight was significant between olive genotypes and it varied between 2.3 and 9.8g. G4 genotype had the biggest fruit and flesh weight. Fruit yields were significant between genotypes so that T2 and B1 had the highest and lowest yields respectively. The oil percent in dry matter was significantly different between genotypes. All genotypes had higher than 40% oil in dry matter. The highest oil percentage (52%) was recorded in G4 genotype. Generally, G4 olive genotype could be a promising genotype due to the large fruit (more than 9 grams), relatively high yield (about one ton) and high oil content (more than 52% of the dry matter).
Discussion
Wild olive genotypes are very important gene pole for any purposes in each county. Iran has different wild olive genotypes in different regions like Golestan, Gilan, Kerman, Kermanshah, Ilam and so on. Identification and evaluation of adaptability of local olive genotypes are very important for new olive cultivar selection and breeding programs. As mentioned above, the evaluated olive genotypes show different responses in Taroum olive research station. Different vegetative and reproductive characteristics were recorded on evaluated olive genotypes. Generally, results showed that G4 olive genotype was superior based on fruit traits, oil and yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Adapatibility
  • Fruit Yield
  • Oil content
  • Olive (Olea europaea
  • L.)

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