مقایسه اثر کلروپروفام و عصاره نعناع فلفلی بر جلوگیری از جوانه‌زنی سیب‌زمینی در انبار

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی - مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان همدان، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، همدان، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع - مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان همدان، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، همدان، ایران

چکیده

جوانه‌زنی عامل حدود نیمی از ضایعات انباری سیب‌زمینی‌ها است. گرچه کاربرد ترکیباتی مانند کلروپروفام در کنترل جوانه‌زنی امکان‌پذیر است اما افت کیفی محصول و اقبال روزافزون به تولید و مصرف فراورده‌های ارگانیک، کاربرد این مواد را محدود کرده است. در این تحقیق طی 5 ماه نگهداری سیب‌زمینی آگریا، عصاره نعناع فلفلی در غلظت‌های صفر، 5/0، 1، 2، 4 گرم در لیتر؛ دوره‌های 2، 4، 6 هفته یک‌بار در سال 1395 و در آزمایشگاه صنایع غذایی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی همدان انجام شد، به کار رفت. در این مدت وضعیت غده‌ها بررسی شد. این تحقیق به صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل با سه فاکتور غلظت عصاره، تکرار مصرف و زمان نگهداری در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی و در 3 تکرار انجام شد. مطابق نتایج با افزایش غلظت عصاره نعناع تا 2 گرم در لیتر، جوانه‌زنی سیب‌زمینی به شکل معنی‌دار کنترل و جوانه‌زنی غده، نسبت به تیمار شاهد تا 4 ماه به تأخیر افتاد. مصرف غلظت بیشتر عصاره نعناع اثر معنی‌داری نداشت. مصرف 5/0 گرم در لیتر آن باعث تحریک جوانه‌زنی غده‌ها نسبت به تیمار شاهد شد. مصرف هر 4 هفته یک‌بار عصاره نعنا بهترین نتیجه را داشت. کاربرد این عصاره در غلظت 2 گرم در لیتر به‌ترتیب کاهش 92 و 97 درصدی جوانه‌زنی و وزن کلی جوانه‌ها را در غده‌های سیب‌زمینی در پی داشت. در ارزیابی حسی، طعم نمونه‌های پخته و سرخ‌ شده سیب‌زمینی‌های تیمار‌ شده با عصاره نعنا و کلروپروفام، اختلاف معنی‌داری با یکدیگر نداشتند، اما هر دو تیمار نسبت به غده‌های شاهد، امتیاز بیشتری دریافت کردند. کاربرد تیمار‌ منتخب این تحقیق توانست تلفات سیب‌زمینی رقم آگریا را در انبار تا 6 درصد کاهش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of the Effect of Mint Extract and Chlorpropham on Preventing Potato Sprouting in the Storage

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. Goudarzi 1
  • R. Kalvandi 2
1 Research Assistant, Department of AERI, Research and Education Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Hamedan. Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Hamedan, Iran
2 Research Assistant, Department of RIFR, Research and Education Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Hamedan. Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Sprouting is one of the main reasons of wasting about one half of potatoes during the storage. The existing methods to control sprouting in long term storage (for example postharvest applications of chlorpropham) can do the job as well, but  the incidence of quality problems and undesirable side effects in such potatoes, and more importantly, the growing interest in organic food products, have challenged the application of these methods.
Materials and Methods
The peppermint extracts used in the experiment were obtained from dried peppermint leaves in 48 hours, at room temperature using 1:1 distilled water-alcohol solution, and with the normal air pressure. The peppermint extracts were dried for 10 days and then transferred to a dark glass bottle by means of petroleum ether (as solvent) and were kept at 2°C until being used for later use. Herbal extracts of peppermint were used at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 g/l, with regular intervals of 2, 4 or 6 weeks during the 5 months of potato (Agria cultivar) storage while sprouting was monitored. Direct contact between tubers and the peppermint extracts was not allowed. To provide the needed oxygen for the tubers respiration, the containers apertures were opened for 15-20 minutes every four weeks and were sealed again. A group of tubers was only treated by 37g chlorpropham (5% purity). To do this, the powder was poured into the container, completely sealed and slowly shaken for 10 minutes. The sealed container was kept at room temperature for 48 hours. All experiments were repeated 3 times. Data was analyzed by a completely randomized design (CRD) with a factorial experiment.
Results
According to the results, by increasing the concentration of mint from 0.5 to 2 g/l, sprouting potato was controlled more effectively and meaningfully. More concentration in the control of potato sprouting was not significant. Use of this extract at a concentration of 0.5 g/l stimulates the germination of tubers compared to the control. Extensive sprouting of tubers was delayed for up to 4 months compared to the control treatment too. Application of peppermint extract caused %92 and %96 decrease in potato germination and total weight sprouting respectively. Organoleptic evaluation of the boiled and fried potato samples, treated with the mint extract and chlorpropham, did not show significant differences.
Discussion
Use of 2 g/l mint extract will be able to decrease waste potato tubers in storage up to 6 percent. Replication of every 4 weeks extracts application is absolutely essential for the best result. Organoleptic evaluation of the boiled and fried potato samples, treated with the mint extract and chlorpropham, received more points compared to control.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mentha piperita L
  • Potato
  • Sprouting
  • Storage

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