همزیستی سه گونه قارچ میکوریز (Glumos spp.) بر رشد و جذب برخی عناصر غذایی در قلمه‌های ریشه‌دار سه رقم زیتون

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه علوم باعبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان

چکیده

این پژوهش به منظور بررسی اثر تلقیح قلمه‌های ریشه‌دار شده سه رقم زیتون با سه گونه قارچ همزیست از جنس Glomus بر ویژگی‌های رشد، میزان کلروفیل و جذب برخی عناصر غذایی در قلمه‌ها اجرا گردید. مطالعه به‌صورت یک آزمایش فاکتوریل با دو فاکتور، بر پایه‌ی طرح کاملاً تصادفی و در سه تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی علوم باغبانی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا انجام شد. فاکتور اول ارقام زیتون در سه سطح شامل ’آربکین‘ (R1)، ’کنسروالیا‘ (R2) و ’مُحرم‘ (R3) و فاکتور دوم تلقیح قلمه‌های ریشه‌دار شده با مخلوط‌های متفاوتی از سه گونه قارچ میکوریزادر پنج سطح شامل D1 (G.mosseae+G.intraradicesG.hoi) D2+G.mosseaeD3 (G.hoi+G.intraradices D4(ترکیب هر سه گونه قارچ) و D5 بدون تلقیح (شاهد) بودند. بر اساس نتایج بیشترین درصد همزیستی R2D2و کمترین آن در تیمارهای D5 هر سه رقم مشاهده گردید. کاربرد قارچ میکوریزا موجب افزایش معنی‌دار برخی ویژگی‌های رشد از جمله ارتفاع و قطر ساقه اصلی نهال، سطح برگ، وزن تر و خشک اندام‌های هوایی و ریشه و نیز محتوای کلروفیل a، b و کل در همه تیمار‌های مایه‌زنی شده نسبت به شاهد گردیدند. همزیستی قارچ‌ها هم‌چنین موجب افزایش معنی‌دار جذب عناصری چون فسفر، پتاسیم، روی و آهن نسبت به شاهد گردید. براساس نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه و اثرات مثبت قارچ میکوریزا روی رشد و جذب عناصر غذایی در نهال‌های زیتون، کاربرد مخلوط قارچ‌های فوق در تولید و پرورش این نهال‌ها توصیه می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Symbiosis Effect of Three Micorhizal Fungi (Glumos spp.) on Growth and the Absorption of Some Nutrient Elements in Rooted Cuttings of Three Olive Cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmood Esna-Ashari 1
  • Somayeh Bahrami 2
1 Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Hamedan, Iran
2 Graduate student, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees are traditionally grown in relatively infertile lands being adapted to poor soils and irrigation. New olive orchards are usually established using mist-propagated plants derived from semi-hardwood cuttings. Although this propagation system is very efficient, but from the economic point of view, shortening the juvenile period of plantlets is very important. Root colonization with mycorrhizal fungi can shorten the length of the juvenile period in olive plantlets, as inoculated plants can absorb the essential nutrient elements much better resulting in growth enhancement and faster development.
Materials and methods
In this study, symbiosis effect of three mycorrhizal fungi on growth, chlorophyll content and the absorption of some nutrient elements in rooted cuttings of three olive (Olea europeae L.) cultivars was investigated. The study was conducted through a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications in the Research Greenhouse of the Department of Horticultural Sciences, Bu-Ali Sina University. The first factor included olive cultivars at three levels (Arbekin “R1”, Conservalia “R2” and Moharam “R3”), and the second factor consisted of mycorrhizal fungi inoculation at five levels (G.mosseae+G.intraradices) “D1” )،G.hoi+G.mosseae( “D2”, (G.hoi+G.intraradices) “D3”, (Mixed three species) “D4” and the control (non-‌inoculation) (D5).
Results:
Abstract
Background and Objectives
Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees are traditionally grown in relatively infertile lands being adapted to poor soils and irrigation. New olive orchards are usually established using mist-propagated plants derived from semi-hardwood cuttings. Although this propagation system is very efficient, from the economic point of view, shortening the juvenile period of plantlets is very important. Root colonization with mycorrhizal fungi can shorten the length of the juvenile period in olive plantlets, as inoculated plants can absorb the essential nutrient elements much better resulting in growth enhancement and faster development.
Materials and Methods
In this study, symbiosis effect of three mycorrhizal fungi on growth, chlorophyll content and the absorption of some nutrient elements in rooted cuttings of three olive (Olea europeae L.) cultivars was investigated. The study was conducted through a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications in the Research Greenhouse of the Department of Horticultural Sciences, Bu-Ali Sina University. The first factor included olive cultivars at three levels (Arbekin “R1”, Conservalia “R2” and Moharam “R3”), and the second factor consisted of mycorrhizal fungi inoculation at five levels (G.mosseae+G.intraradices) “D1”, )G.hoi+G.mosseae( “D2”, (G.hoi+G.intraradices) “D3”, (Mixed three species) “D4” and the control (non-­inoculation) (D5).
Results
The results showed that almost all measured characteristics were affected by the treatments. The highest symbiosis percentage was observed in R2D2 and the least belonged to D5. Based on the result, symbiotic fungi made a significant increase in some growth indices including the height and diameter of the plants, leaf area and diameter and length of the branch. The inoculation also caused an increase in the fresh and dry weight of the root and aerial parts of the plants compared to the controls. Mycorrhizal fungal inoculation resulted in increasing the total, a and b chlorophyll contents in all treatments. This symbiosis caused a significant increase in the absorption of some nutrient elements such as K, Zn, Fe and P compared to the controls.
Discussion
The results of the present study showed that, mycorrhizal fungi colonization enhanced the uptake of essential nutrients by plants, leading to a greater root surface area and biomass. Both the growth and nutrient content of the mycorrhizal fungi colonized olive plants were increased. It seems that mycorrhiza increases the absorption of water and nutrient elements from the soil through the further development that results in increasing leaf photosynthesis and ultimately increasing the plant growth.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll
  • Fresh and dry weight
  • Inoculation
  • Stem diameter
  • Phosphorus absorption