بررسی کمیت و کیفیت اسانس اندام‌های مختلف برازمبل (Perovskia abrotanoides)در رویشگاه طبیعی استان خراسان شمالی

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گیاهان دارویی، گروه کشاورزی، پژوهشکده گیاهان و مواد اولیه دارویی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه کشاورزی، پژوهشکده گیاهان و مواد اولیه دارویی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه فیتوشیمی، پژوهشکده گیاهان و مواد اولیه دارویی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه بیولوژی، پژوهشکده گیاهان و مواد اولیه دارویی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

برازَمبل (Perovskia abrotanoides Karel.)، یکی از گیاهان دارویی با ارزش و کمتر شناخته‌شده ایران است؛ که اغلب به‌صورت خودرو در حاشیه جاده‌های کوهستانی با اقلیم سرد و خشک می‌روید. در طب سنتی از این گیاه برای درمان دردهای روماتیسمی، بیماری سالک، اثرات ضد‌درد، خنک‌کننده، و ضدالتهاب، استفاده می‌شود. در مطالعه حاضر، اندام‌های مختلف (برگ، گل و ساقه) برازمبل از رویشگاه طبیعی چمن بید (استان خراسان شمالی) برداشت و پس از اسانس‌گیری به روش تقطیر با آب و با استفاده از دستگاه کلونجر، توسط دستگاه گازکروماتوگرافی و گازکروماتوگرافی متصل به طیف سنج جرمی، از نظر مقدار اسانس و تنوع ترکیبات اسانس بررسی شدند. میانگین محتوای اسانس اندام‌های مختلف به‌ترتیب 0/1، 3/2 و 7/0 درصد (وزنی به وزنی) برای برگ، گل و ساقه به‌دست آمد. در مجموع 39، 32 و 35 ترکیب که 4/99، 8/99 و 7/98 درصد از کل ترکیب‌های اسانس برگ، گل و ساقه بودند، شناسایی شد. آلفابیسابلول (29–6/2 درصد)، 1و 8 سینئول (5/16–4/11 درصد)، کامفور (21–1/10 درصد)، آلفاپینن (2/16–9/1 درصد) و دلتا3کارن (3/11 – 4/7 درصد)، از ترکیب‌های عمده اسانس بودند. اسانس برگ غنی از سزکوئی‌ترپن‌های اکسیژنه و اسانس گل و ساقه غنی از مونوترپن‌های اکسیژنه  بودند. گل برازمبل، پتانسیل تولید اسانس بالاتری نسبت به سایر اندام‌ها داشت. محتوای آلفابیسابلول برگ، 11 برابر محتوای آن در دیگر اندام‌ها بود.کامفور و 1و 8 سینئول، ترکیب‌های غالب اسانس در گل و ساقه بودند. در مجموع، از تنوع ترکیب‌های اسانس اندام‌های گیاه، جهت پیشبرد اهداف اصلاحی به‌نژادگران در صنایع دارویی، آرایشی-بهداشتی و غذایی، می‌توان استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Essential Oil Quantity and Quality of Different Plant Organs from Perovskia abrotanoides Karel in Natural Habitat of North Khorasan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • S.H. Pourhosseini 1
  • M.H. Mirjalili 2
  • S. Nejad Ebrahimi 3
  • A. Sonboli 4
1 M.Sc. Student of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Department of Agriculture, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agriculture, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Phytochemsitry, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Tehran, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Biology, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Chemical variability among populations according to their geographical and bio climatic distribution imposes that conservation strategies of populations should be made appropriately, taking into account these factors. Perovskia, with the common Persian name of "Brazemble", a small genus from Lamiaceae family, is distributed in various regions of Asia, as Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. The genus is represented in Iran by only three species as P. abrotanoides, P. atriplicifolia and P. artemisoides. The plant is an aromatic shrub which mainly grow in mountains at an altitude of 2200 to 4200 m from Northeastern across center to Southeastern of Iran. All parts of the plant are aromatic, but Perovskia is not edible. The plant is used in Iranian folk medicine as an analgesic in rheumatic pains, treatment of leishmaniasis, fever and headache. The present study, was planned to evaluate variations in essential oil composition and contents of different Plant Organs from P. abrotanoides.
Materials and Methods
In this study, different plant organs (leaf, flower and stalk) of P. abrotanoides were collected from natural habitat in North Khorasan province and their essential oil content and composition were studied. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications for the essential oil contents. Essential oils were analyzed by Gas chromatography (GC) and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in respect to their chemical composition.
Results
Essential oil contents of leaf, flower and stalk were 1.0, 2.3 and 0.7% (w/w), respectively. The total number of compounds identified and quantified was thirty-nine in leaf, thirty-two in flower, and thirty-five in stalk, representing 99.4, 99.8, and 98.7 % of the total essential oil, respectively. The major compounds of the essential oil were α-bisabolol (2.6-29 %), 1,8-cineole (11.4-16.5 %), camphor (10.1-21 %), α-pinene (1.9-16.2 %) and δ-3-carene (7.4-11.3 %). Results showed that leaf essential oils of the plant characterized with high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (41 %). Oxygenated monoterpenes, were rich in flower (42.1 %) and stalk (49.5 %). The main volatile compound identified in the leave was α-bisabolol, which reached a concentration of 29%. The content of essential oil in the flower was higher than that in the leave and stalk.
Discussion
Results of the current study show that the main compounds and content percentage of essential oil were different in each plant parts. By using the hydrodistillation, 32 to 39 compounds were identified representing 98.7% to 99.4 % of the total oil components. The essential oil analysis revealed that α-bisabolol, 1, 8-cineole, camphor, α-pinene and δ-3-carene, were main essential oil constituents in all organs. The variation observed for essential oil content was 0.7% to 2.3% in stalk and flower, respectively. Chemical variation of P. abrotanoides essential oils from different plant parts, which is significant for conservation and breeding programs, can be considered by medicinal plants breeders and pharmaceutical industries for breeding and processing uses.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • α-bisabolol
  • Camphor
  • 1
  • 8-Cineole
  • Lamiaceae
  • Phytochemical variation

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