عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives
Gerbera is one of the most important ornamental plants that used as cut flower and potted plant. The common methods of propagation does not have performance for supplying the global demand of this ornamental plant. So the most common method for commercial propagation of gerbera is micropropagation.
Material and methods
In this study, effect of different hormonal treatments and cultivars on micropropagation and rooting of gerbera shoot tip explant was evaluated. Shoot tip explants were first washed with running tap water for 30 min then they were surface sterilized by dipping in 1.5% sodium hypochlorite solution for 5 min and rinsed with sterile distilled water, followed by immersing in 0.1 % mercuric chloride solution for 5 min. After Sterilization with mercuric chloride solution, capitulum was washed with sterile distilled water. Subsequent washing was done with sterile distilled water three times. Sterilization with sodium hypochlorite solution and mercuric chloride and final rinse with sterile distilled water were done under laminar air flow hood. In the proliferation phase, MS medium containing 1 mg/l BA or KIN in combination with 0.1 mg/l IAA or hormone-free medium, 3% sucrose, 8 g/l agar was used. For rooting of propagated plantlets, ½ MS medium containing 1 mg/l IBA, IAA, 2IP or ½ MS hormone-free medium, 3% sucrose, 8 g/l agar was used. After 4 weeks different parameters such as number of plantlet, height of plantlet, number of main root, root length, number of secondary root were measured. Cultivars that was used in this experiment are as follows: 1: ‘Aventura’, 2: ‘Barones’, 3: ‘Mayfair’, 4: ‘Cacharelle’, 5: ‘Real’, 6: ‘Sorbet’, 7: ‘Dalma’, 8: ‘Goldy’, 9: ‘Panama’, 10: ‘Lancaster’, 11: ‘Dune’, 12: ‘Bellavue’, 13: ‘Blinddate’, 14: ‘Applause’, 15: ‘Sunway’.
Results and discussion
The results showed that in all studied cultivars, the medium containing BA lead to producing the highest number of plantlet. So using the medium containing BA in propagation phase is recommended for obtaining the highest number of plantlet. Also the results showed that the rooting of gerbera plantlets was affected by cultivar and suitable hormonal composition for rooting of each cultivar was different. However, the appropriate acclimation of produced plantlets is so important. Although the length and number of roots in ½ MS medium was at the average of other treatments, but propagated plantlets from this medium, had a suitable acclimation capacity. Moreover, additional cost for utilization of rooting hormones was reduced and therefore commercial production cost decreased. So application of this medium for rooting of different gerbera cultivars is recommended. Finally acclimation of rooted plantlet was done in cocopeat and perlite medium, with 95% success.
Alizadeh, M. and Hosseini, B. (2013). Effect of population and BAP hormonal treatment on in vitro regeneration of Hyssopus officinalis L. Horticultural Science, 27(2), 201-207.
Bagheri, A. R. Ziarat Nia S. M. and Hosseini, M. (2004). Tree tissue culture, (1th ed.). Mashhad: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press. [In Farsi]
Cardoso, J. C. and da Silva. J. A. T. (2013). Gerbera micropropagation. Biotechnology Advances, 31(8), 1344-1357.
Debasis, C. and Subodh, K. D. (2008). Micropropagation of gerbera: lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities during acclimatization process. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 30(3), 325-331.
Fatima, N., Ahmad, N., Ahmad, I. and Anis, M. (2015). Interactive effects of growth regulators, carbon sources, ph on plant regeneration and assessment of genetic fidelity using single primer amplification reaction (SPARS) techniques in Withania somnifera L. Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 177(1), 118-136.
Fatima, N. and Anis, M. (2012). Role of growth regulators on in vitro regeneration and histological analysis in Indian ginseng (Withania somnifera L.). Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 18(1), 59-67.
Gerado, M. (2002). Gerbera cultivation in greenhouse. Schreurs BVDC Kwakel the Netherland.
Ghayur Karimiyani, Z., Bagheri, A., Jafarkhani Kermani, M. and Davari Nezhad., Gh. (2010). The effect of different concentrations of kinetin and thidiazuron on regeneration and proliferation of gerbera. Horticultural Science, 24(2), 170-174.
Huang, M. C. and Chu, C. Y. (1985). A scheme for commercial multiplication of Gerbera (Gerbera hybrida Hort.) through shoo tip culture. Journal of Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 54(1), 94-100.
Hubner, S. (2014).International statistics flowers and plants(Volume 62).Germany: Centre for Business Management in Horticulture and applied research, Leibniz University Hanover.
Kanwar, J. K. and Kumar, S. (2008). In vitro propagation of Gerbera-A Review. Horticultural Science (Prague), 35(1), 35-44.
Khanna H. K. and Raina S. K. (1998). Genotype x culture media interaction effects on regeneration response of three indica rice cultivars. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 52(3), 145-153.
Murashige, T., Serpa, M. and Jones, J. B. (1974). Clonal multiplication of Gerbera through tissue culture. Hortscience, 9, 175-180.
Olivera, O. V. Z., Gutierrez, E. M. A. and Andrade, R. M. (2000). In vitro culture of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus) and its acclimatization in greenhouse. Bioagro, 12, 75-80.
Pattnaik S. and Chand P.K. (1996). In vitro propagation of the medicinal herbs Ocimum americanum L. syn. O. canum Sims. (Hoary basil) and Ocimum sanctum L. (holy basil). Plant Cell Reproduction, 15(11), 846-850.
Pierik, R. L. M., Steegmans, H. H. M., Verhaegh, J. A. M. and Wouters, A. N. (1979). New developments in the vegetative propagation of gerberas in test-tubes. Vakbl voor de Bloemisterij, 34(25), 36-37.
Reynoird, J. P., Chriqui, D., Noin, M., Brown, S. and Marie, D. (1993). Plant propagation from in vitro leaf culture of several gerbera species. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 33(2),203-210.
Sharzad, A. and Siddiqui, S. A. (2000). In vitro organogenesis in Ocimum sanctum L. A multipurpose herb. Phytomorphology, 50(1), 27-35.
Singh. N. K. and Sehgal, C. B. (1999). Micropropagation of ‘Holy Basil’ (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) from young inflorescences of mature plants. Plant Growth Regulation, 29(3), 161-166.
Soczek, U. and Hempel, M. (1986). Some aspects influencing the efficiency of Gerbera micropagation. Sadowni Ctwa Rosliny Oadobne, 1(5), 117-124.
Tyagi, P. and Kothari, S.L. (2004). Rapid in vitro regeneration of Gerbera jamesonii (H. Bolus ex Hook f.) from different explants. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 3(4), 584-586.
Van Eck, J. M. and Kitto S. L. (1992). Regeneration of peppermint and orange mint from leaf disks. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 30(1), 41-49.
Zarei, M., Garossi, G. H., Nezami, A., Hosseini, R. and Ahmadi, J. (2013). The effect of liquid medium, carbon source and light spectrum on shoot formation and the way of auxin treatment on rooting of Gisela 6 rootstock. Journal of Cell and Tissue, 4(2), 169-185.