ارزیابی ویژگی‌های فیزیکوشیمیایی میوه‌ی نارنگی‌های جدید نوشین (Citrus reticulata cv. Noushin) و شاهین (Citrus reticulata cv. Shahin) طی زمان‌های مختلف برداشت

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رامسر

2 کارشناس‌ارشد فیزیولوژی گیاهی، گروه فیزیولوژی و فناوری پس از برداشت، پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری، رامسر، ایران

3 کارشناس علوم باغبانی، گروه فیزیولوژی و فناوری پس از برداشت، پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری، رامسر، ایران

چکیده

در این پژوهش شاخص‌‌های کیفی رسیدن میوه دو رقم جدید نوشین و شاهین (حاصل از دورگ‌گیری نارنگی و پرتقال) روی پایه نارنج طی دو سال (1394-1393) در پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری (رامسر) بررسی گردید. از نارنگی شاهین از آبان تا اسفند و از نارنگی نوشین از آبان تا دی به‌صورت ماهیانه نمونه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد اندازه میوه،‌‌ میانگین قطرهای حسابی، هندسی و هم‌ساز در هر دو رقم طی برداشت‌های بعدی نسبت به برداشت اول تغییر معنی‌داری (01/0 p<) نداشت. بین میزان کرویت میوه و میانگین قطرهای حسابی، هندسی و معادل همبستگی مثبت وجود داشت. میوه‌ی شاهین ضریب رعنایی بالا (پخ‌تر)، کرویت کمتر و چگالی کمتر از یک داشت. دانسیته میوه نسبت به زمان برداشت روندی افزایشی داشت. رنگ سبز پوست نارنگی نوشین در آذر و نارنگی شاهیندر اوایل دی به نارنجی تغییر کرد. نسبت TSS:TAدر میوه نوشین در آبان (81/9) و در میوه شاهین (32/8) در دی به حد نصاب برداشت رسید. شاخص تکنولوژی در هر دو رقم تغییر معنی‌داری طی دفعات برداشت نداشت (01/0 p<) لیکن نارنگی شاهین شاخص تکنولوژی (متوسط 50 درصد) بالایی داشت. متوسط ضخامت پوست نارنگی‌های نوشین و شاهین به‌ترتیب 3 و 2 میلی‌متر بود و تغییر معنی‌داری (01/0 p<) طی زمان‌های مختلف برداشت نکرد. در رقم نوشین تعداد بذر در دامنه 19 تا 27 عدد و در رقم شاهین در دامنه 15 تا 35 عدد بود که هر دو در گروه پربذر قرار گرفتند. به‌طورکلی نارنگی نوشین و شاهین به‌ترتیب به‌عنوان ارقامی زودرس و میان‌رس دارای ویژگی‌های کیفی مناسب مصرف در بازار مرکبات ایران هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of fruit physico-chemical characteristics of new mandarins - Noushin (Citrus reticulata cv. Noushin) and Shahin (Citrus reticulata cv. Shahin) - during different harvesting time

نویسندگان [English]

  • J. Fattahi Moghadam 1
  • S. E. Seyed Ghasemi 2
  • K. Najafi 3
1 Assistant Professor of Horticultural Science Research Institute, Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ramsar, Iran
2 Master Science of Plant Physiology, Postharvest Physiology and Technology Department, Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Ramsar, Iran
3 Bachelor of Horticultural Science, Postharvest Physiology and Technology Department, Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Ramsar, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: According to a breeding program carry out in Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center (Ramsar), ‘Noushin’ and ‘Shahin’ mandarins were created from crossing between Clemantin mandarin×Salustiana orange and Clemantin mandarin×Hamlin orange, respectively. The fruits of this new varieties on Sour orange rootstock did not study yet, completely. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the Noushin and Shahin physico-chemical characteristics on Sour orange rootstock during two years.
Materials and methods: ‘Noushin’ sampled from October to December during three months. ‘Shahin’ fruits were collected from October to February (5 times) as monthly. Various physico-chemical characteristics evaluated including fruit lenght, width, thickness; arithmetic, geometric, equivalent and harmonic diametrics means; aspect ratio, sphericity, surface area, true volume, apparent volume, volume error, density, peel thickness, Easy of peeling, weight, juice percentage, seed number, peel color indices (L*, a*, b*, hue angle, chroma and CCI), total soluble solid (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), technological index (TI) during experiment.
Results: The results showed that fruit size, arithmetic, geometric, equivalent and harmonic means of both varieties had not significantly (p<0.01) changes from the first to final time of harvesting. There was a positive correlation between fruit sphericity and arithmetic, geometric, equivalent diametric means. Fruit of ‘Shahin’ had high aspect ratio, less sphericity and low density (<1). Fruit density showed an increasing trend during the harvest time. The green colour of peel in ‘Noushin’ and ‘Shahin’ changed to orange colour at the last week of November and December, respectively. Based on citrus colour index (CCI), no cultivars necessary to de-greening after the last week of November. The TSS:TA ratio was optimum for harvesting in late of October (9.81) in ‘Noushin’ and at the last week of December (8.32) in ‘Shahin’. Although the technology index in both varieties had not significantly (p<0.01) changes from the first to final harvesting but it was high in ‘Shahin’ with 50 percent nearly. The peel thickness in ‘Noushin’ and ‘Shahin’ was 3 and 2 mm respectively which had not significantly (p<0.01) changes during harvesting time. The seed number in ‘Noushin’ was 19 to 27 and in Shahin was 15 to 35 that revealed both of them belonged to high seed content category.
Conclusion: According to TSS:TA ratio index, ‘Noushin’ as an early ripening variety can harvested in the last October and ‘Shahin’ as mid ripening variety can harvested in late of December. Both of varieties is sutaible for the north of Iran climate. Based on juice percentage and TI data, the amount of juice with about 50% was higher in ‘Shahin’ that sutaible for prosessing industries. Due to empty space inside the fruit skin and flesh of ‘Noushin’ and low dansity (<1), fruits are floating on washing water during prosessing. The skin colour was green in both of varity in late of October. Becase of TSS:TA ratio is sutaible at this time in ‘Noushin’, there fore growers can harvested ‘Noushin’ variety with green skin colour in late of October but ‘Shahin’ must be remained on tree until late December.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hybridization
  • Quality
  • Ripening
  • Mandarin

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