تأثیر سطوح مختلف کلشی‌سین بر برخی خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی و فیتوشیمیایی گیاه دارویی زرین‌گیاه

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناس ارشد گیاهان دارویی، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

القای پلی‌پلوئیدی یکی از ابزارهای مهم اصلاح گیاهان دارویی می‌باشد. چند برابر شدن کروموزوم‌ها در اثر پلی‌پلوئیدی باعث ایجاد تغییرات مورفولوژیکی، فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی و سیستم پرورش گیاهان شده و در نهایت موجب تولید یک ژنوتیپ جدید می‌گردد. در این تحقیق، تیمار مریستم انتهایی با غلظت‌های مختلف کلشی‌سین (صفر، 05/0 ، 1/0 ، 2/0 و 5/0 درصد وزنی به حجمی) در دو مرحله دو و چهار برگی گیاه دارویی زرین گیاه (Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss.)، مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. مطالعات سیتولوژیکی با استفاده از فلوسایتومتری افزایش تعداد کروموزوم از سطح دیپلوئید (2n=2x=20) به تتراپلوئیدی (2n=4x=40) را اثبات کرد. از مجموع 165 دانهال بازمانده، 27/7 درصد تتراپلوئید، 3/13 درصد میکسوپلوئید و بقیه دیپلوئید بودند. در گیاهان تتراپلوئید روزنه‌ها به‌طور قابل توجهی بزرگتر و شاخص روزنه بیشتر از گیاهان دیپلوئید بود. همبستگی منفی و معنی‌داری بین اندازه روزنه و ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد برگ و تعداد شاخه‌های جانبی به‌دست آمد. محتوای فلاونوئید کل در گیاهان دیپلوئید 28/1583 و در گیاهان تتراپلوئید 07/1890 میکروگرم بر گرم وزن خشک بود. با توجه به نتایج به نظر می‌رسد تیمار 5/0 درصد کلشی‌سین می‌تواند به‌عنوان یک تیمار مؤثر در القای پلی‌پلوئیدی درD. kotschyi  باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Different Concentration of Colchicine on Some Morphological and Phytochemical Characteristics of Dracocephalum Kotschyi Boiss

نویسندگان [English]

  • A.A. Zahedi 1
  • B. Hosseini 2
  • M. Fattahi 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran (b.hosseini@urmia.ac.ir)
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. (Labiateae) is an endemic perennial herbaceous plant known in Iran as Zarrin-Giah. Recent pharmacological studies have confirmed some of the methoxylated flavonoids in plant’s parts having anti-cancer properties. Excessive harvesting of wild plants and limited distribution areas are the main reasons why D. kotschyi is now listed as an endangered plant. Polyploidy induction is an effective tool in medicinal plant breeding. Chromosome duplication and polyploidization may affect plant morphology and breeding systems, ultimately enabling the release of improved genotypes.
Materials and Methods
In this study, an efficient procedure was established for successful induction of tetraploid D. kotschyi by treating diploid explants with colchicine in horticulture laboratory of Urmia University during 2014-2015 years. Seedlings apical meristem treatment was carried out in two growth phases including, the two and four-leaf plants through presoaking manner. Colchicine at a concentration of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 % (w/v) was applied in each of these stages. Cytological and morphological evidence confirmed the results of flow cytometry analysis.
Results
Cytological analyses showed the increase of chromosome numbers from 2n=2x=20 to 2n=4x=40. The results of this study demonstrated for the first time that chromosome counting in D. kotschyi of a total of 165 surviving seedlings, 7.27% was found to be tetraploids, 13.3% was chimers while the remainder were diploids. Tetraploid plants demonstrated significantly longer stomata and a higher stomatal index compared with diploid control plants. Negative correlation between stomata size, plants height, leaf number and lateral shoot number was obtained in treated plants. The total content of flavonoids increased from 1583.28 in diploids to 1890.07 (μg/g DW) in stable tetraploids.
Discussion
It seems that 0.5% of colchicine can be used as an effective treatment for polyploidy induction in D. kotschyi.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dracocephalum Flavonoid
  • Flow cytometry
  • HPLC
  • Kotschyi
  • Tetraploid
  • Xantomicrol

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