تأثیر زمان برداشت و شوری خاک بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی علوفه پنج رقم یونجه (Medicago sativa L.) در اهواز

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، گروه زراعت، پردیس علوم و تحقیقات خوزستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

2 استاد، گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

3 مربی پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

جهت بررسی تأثیر زمانهای مختلف برداشت بر خصوصیات مختلف ارقام گرمسیری یونجه، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 91-90 به‌صورت کرتهای خردشده در قالب طرح بلوکهای کامل تصادفی با 4 تکرار در شرایط خاک شور با هدایت‌الکتریکی 5/7 دسیزیمنس بر متر در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان اجرا گردید. کرت‎های اصلی ارقام مختلف یونجه شامل مساسرسا، بغدادی، نیک‌شهری و بمی و زمانهای برداشت در ماههای شهریور، مهر و آذر (به‌ترتیب چین تابستانه، پاییزه اول و پاییزه دوم، در مجموع سهچین هم‌چنین مرحله رشدی برداشت بر مبنای 15-10 درصد گلدهی برای چینهای تابستانه و چین پاییزه اول و ارتفاع جوانه پای طوقه (8-6 سانتی‌متر) برای چین پاییزه دوم بود) به کرتهای فرعی تعلق گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد ارقام مورد آزمایش از نظر بیشتر صفات به غیر از نسبت برگ به ساقه، غلظت کلسیم و نسبت سدیم به کلسیم تفاوت معنیدار با یکدیگر داشتند. بیشترین عملکرد علوفه خشک به رقم بغدادی در چین سوم تعلق داشت (93/4 تن در هکتار). کمترین درصد فیبر گیاه در چین سوم (پاییزه دوم) در ارقام بمی و مساسرسا به‌ترتیب با میانگین‎های 32/21 و 35/21 مشاهده شد که تفاوت معنیداری با یکدیگر نداشتند. بررسی نسبت سدیم به کلسیم نشان داد بیشترین و کمترین مقدار این صفت به‌ترتیب به رقم مساسرسا در چین پاییزه اول و به رقم بمی در چین تابستانه تعلق داشت. بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش، در میان ارقام مورد مطالعه، رقمهای مساسرسا و بغدادی و در میان چینها نیز چین دوم پاییزه وضعیت مناسبتری داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment Effect of Cutting Time and Soil Salinity on Quality and Quantity Forage Yield of Five Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) Varieties under Ahvaz Condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Nekoyanfar 1
  • Sh. Lack 2
  • Gh.R. Abadouz 3
1 Graduate of M.Sc. Agronomy, Khuzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Research Instructor, Seed and Plant Improvement Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
The cutting schedule imposes strong effects on yield and forage quality of alfalfa varieties. In Khuzestan province (south west of Iran), there are many influential factors on alfalfa cutting time such as temperature, sunlight duration, height of water table and amounts of salts in soil. The aim of this research was to evaluate forage production in continuous cuttings of alfalfa varieties in saline soils of Ahvaz conditions.
Materials and Methods
In order to study the effect of cutting time on quantitative and qualitative yield of alfalfa varieties an experiment was carried out as split plots in time, based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with four replications in saline soil (Electrical conductivity=7.5 ds.m-1) at the research farm of Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center in 2011 and 2012 crop seasons. The main plot included varieties (Mesasirca, Baghdadi, Nikshahri and Bami) and the sub plot included three cutting times (23 Aug., 1 Oct. and 20 Dec.). These cutting times characterized, summer cut, first autumn cut and second autumn cut. Nine traits including Fresh Forage yield, Dry Forage yield, Leaf stem Ratio, Crude protein, Crude fiber, Na concentration in plant, Ca concentration in plant, Na/Ca were determined. Concentrations of Na and Ca in plant were assessed by using flame photometer.
Results
The results of ANOVA showed that genotypes had a significant effect on all of traits, except Leaf Stem ratio, Ca concentration in plan, Na /Ca. The highest dry forage yield (4.93 t.ha-1) and fresh forage yield (15.15 t.ha-1) belonged to Baghdadi in the second autumn cut. The lowest Crude Fiber percentage was owned by Bami in the second autumn cut (21.32%) and Mesasirca in the second autumn cut (21.35%) which did not have a significant difference with each other. The highest amount of Na/Ca trait belonged to Baghdadi in the first autumn cut and the lowest Na/Ca belonged to Bami in summer cut. Baghdadi variety at the second cutting treatment has the highest (0.95%) Na concentration and Nickshahri at summer cutting has the lowest amount of Na (0.44%). Mesasersa (45.9 cm) and Baghdadi (45 cm) varieties had the highest plant height; also, Nickshahri (41.1 cm) and Bami (43.1 cm) had the lowest plant height.
Discussions
Considering results of this research, it is suggested that among varieties, Mesasirca and Baghdadi were the best genotypes and the second autumn cut has suitable conditions for producing of alfalfa high forage quantity and quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crude protein
  • Cut
  • Na/Ca

References

Abadoz, Gh.R., and Rahnama, A.A. (2005). Determine compatibility different alfalfa cultivar, Ahvaz Region. Research report. Research Centre of Agriculture and Natural Resource of Khuzestan. Ahvaz, Iran. P. 28. [In Farsi]

Albercht, K.A., Wedin, W.F., and Boxton, D.R. (1989). Cell-wall composition and digestibility of alfalfa stems and leaves. Crop Science Journal, 27: 735-741.

Al-Khatib, M.M., McNeilly, T., and Collins, J.C. (1994). Between and within cultivar variability in salt tolerance in lucerne, (Medicago sativa L.). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution Journal, 41: 159-164.

Amraei, S., Jafari. A., Nouri. F., Gorje. A.H., and Shabani, Gh. (2012). The effect of intercropping and pure cropping of alfalfa with 3 rangeland grass species on forage dry matter and crude protein yield in dry land farming condition. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences Journal, 4(17): 1307-1310.

Arzani, H. (2009). Forage quality and daily need livestock grazing of pasture. Tehran university press. First Edition. Tehran, Iran. P. 354. [In Farsi]

Ayars, J.E., Soppe, R.W., and Shouse, P. (2011). Alfalfa production using saline drainage water. Journal Irrigation and Drainage, 60(1): 123-135.

Bijanzadeh, E., Naderi, R., Edalat, M., and Emam, Y. (2011). Relationship between Ion accumulation and plant biomass of alfalfa under salt stress. Journal of Plant Physiology and Breeding. 1(2): 1-10.

Bonickovic, A.D., Grubic., G.A. Dorcevic, N.N., and Stojanovic, B.D. (2012). Changes of crude protein content in Lucerne plant during the fist three vegetation cycles. Novi Sad Journal, 2: 23-26.

Cachorro, P., Ortiz, A., and Cerda, A. (1994). Implications of calcium nutrition on the response of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to salinity. Plant and Soil Journal, 159: 205-212.

Davodi, M., Jafari, A.A., Assadian, G., and Ariapour, A. (2011). Assessment of Relationships among yield and quality traits in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) under dry land farming system, Hamadan, Iran. Journal of Rangeland Science, 1(2): 247-254.

Dudley, L.M., Hanks, R.J., MacAdam, J.W., Mace, R.W., and Low, A.P. (1994). Use of saline waste water from electrical power plants for irrigation. 1993 Report. Part 1. Soil, water and crop yields. Utah Agricultural Experiment Station. Research Report. pp: 150.

Dukic, D., Stevovic, V., Vasiljevic, S., and Durovic, D. (2007). Yield and quality of varieties and genotypes of alfalfa and red clover, Cacak, XII Conference on Biotechnology proceedings, 12: 301-308.

Flowers, T.J. (2004). Improving crop salt tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55: 307-319.

Gosheh, M.A. and Ghalebi, S. (2012). Wheat management irrigation by saline water in south land of Khuzestan. Research Water in Agriculture Journal, 26(1): 29-42. [In Farsi]

He, T. and Cramer, G.R. (1992). Growth and mineral nutrition of six rapid-cycling Brassica species in response to seawater salinity. Plant and Soil Journal, 139: 285-294.

Hefny, M.M. and Dolinksi, R. (1998). Evaluation of different Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) varieties under different concentrations of NaCl during germination stage. In: Abstracts, North American Alfalfa Improvement Conf. Proc. Bozeman, MT. 2-6 Aug. USA. [Online] http://www.naaic.org/Publications/1998Proc/abstracts/Hefny.html.

Hintz, R.W. and Albercht, K.A. (1991). Predication of alfalfa chemical composition from maturity and plant morphology .Crop Science Journal, 31: 1561-1565.

Jafari, A., Nosrati Nigeh, M., and Haidari Sharifabadm, H. (2003). Comparison of yield, morphological and quality traits in 18 ecotypes and varieties of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Proceeding of the VIIth International Rangelands Congress, Durban, South Africa, pp: 1403-1405.

Karimi, H. (1996). Planting and breeding of forage crop. Tehran University Press. Tehran, Iran. P. 414. [In Farsi]

Khosrowchahli, M., Hosseinzadeh Moghbeli, A.H., Monirifar, H., and Normohammadi, Gh. (2013). Study of some morphological traits of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) ecotypes under salinity stress condition. Journal of Novel Applied Sciences, 2(10): 480-482.

Kochaki, A. and Nasiri Mahalati, M. (1992). Crop Ecology. Jahad Daneshgahi Mashhad Press. First Edition. Mashhad, Iran. P. 291. [In Farsi]

Li, G. and Zhang, Y. (2004). Alfalfa water requirement and water use efficiency. In: Abstracts, North American Alfalfa Improvement Conference. 18-21th July, Quebec, Canada.

Liu, H.X., Guo, Z.G., Wang, S.M., Zhang, Z.H., and Wang, Y.R. (2005). Anew procedure for evaluating lucerne genotypes for semi-arid land in west China. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 48: 109-116.

Luciano, P., Carroni, A.M., Annicchiarico, P., Manuza, P., Long, U.A., and Congiu, G. (2008). Adaptation, summer survival and autumn dormancy of Lucerne cultivars in south European Mediterranean region (Sardina). Options Mediterranean Journal, Aeries A, 79: 110-119.

Maas, E.V. and Hoffman, G.J. (1977). Crop salt tolerance-current assessment. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Division, 103: 115-134.

Maqueen, R.E. and Blanger, G. (1995). Morphological characteristics and nutritive value of alfalfa cultivars development for improved quality. Canadian Journal Plant Science, 75: 550-557.

Mauries, M. (1994). Valeur alimentaire de la luzerne. La Luzerne Aujourd hui, 1st Ed. France Agricola Paris, pp: 109-130.

Mezni, M., Albouchi. A, and Essia, B. (2012). Effect of salinity on sodium and chloride uptake, proline and soluble carbohydrate contents in three alfalfa varieties. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 1(6): 01-06.

Michaud, R., Tremblay, G.F., Belanger G., and Michaud. J. (2001) .Crude protein degradation in leaves and stems of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Zaragoza: CIHEAM, 45: 211-214.

Minhas, P.S. and Gupta, R. K. (1993). Conjunctive use of saline and non-saline waters. I. Response of wheat to initial salinity profiles and salinization patterns. Agriculture Water Management Journal, 23: 125-137.

Miyamoto, S., Moore J., and Stichler, C. (1984). Saline Water Irrigation in Far West Texas. Proc. of the specialty conference sponsored by irrigation and drainage Div. American Society of Civil Engineers. Flagstaff, 24-26 July.

Munns, R. (2005). Response of crops to salinity. In Abstracts, International Salinity Forum Proc. Riverside, CA. 25-27 Apr. 2005. P. 339.

Pirdashti, H.A., Kazemi poshtmosari, H., and Niknejad, Y. (2007). Forage crop production. Haghshenas Press. Tehran, Iran. P. 58. [In Farsi]

Rengasamy, P. (1987). Importance of calcium in irrigation with saline and sodic water a viewpoint. Agricultural Water Manage, 12: 207-219.

Scasta, J.D. (2008). Screening of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars for salt tolerance in West Texas. M.Sc. Thesis, Texas Tech. University. Agronomy Dept. P. 111.

Vaughan, L.S., Macadam, J.W., Smith, S.E., and Dudley, L.M. (2002). Root growth and yield of differing alfalfa rooting populations under increasing salinity and zero leaching. Crop Science Journal, 42: 2064-2071.

Volkmar, K.M., Hu, Y., and Stephan, H. (2007). Physiological response of plants to salinity: A review. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 88: 19-27.

Zamanian, M. (2003). Evaluation qualitative and quantitative forage yield of alfalfa cultivar in different cutting. Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resource, 1(10): 73-82. [In Farsi]