ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی، مورفولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی چهار رقم انجیر خوراکی و دو رقم برانجیر در پاسخ به تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد باغبانی، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

2 استاد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی،دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

3 محقق، ایستگاه تحقیقات انجیر استهبان، استهبان، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکترای باغبانی، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

اثر تنش خشکی روی برخی از ویژگی‌های مورفولوژیکی، فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی شش رقم انجیر (سبز، سیاه، سیاه درشت، شاه‌انجیر، برانجیر ویل و برانجیر پوزدمبالی) طی دو سال مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. پژوهش به‌صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار و سه سطح تنش خشکی شامل ظرفیت زراعی به‌عنوان شاهد و 50 و 25 درصد ظرفیت زراعی به‌ترتیب به‌عنوان تنش متوسط و تنش شدید اجرا شد. محتوی رطوبت نسبی آّب برگ، نشت الکترولیت‌ها، میزان کلروفیل، پرولین، پروتئین و کربوهیدرات‌ها، ارتفاع بوته، وزن تر و خشک ریشه و اندام هوایی و غلظت پتاسیم و سدیم نیز اندازه‌گیری گردیدند. با افزایش تنش خشکی ارتفاع بوته، وزن تر و خشک ریشه و ساقه کاهش یافت و بیشترین آن در تنش شدید مشاهده شد که با شاهد و تنش متوسط اختلاف معنی‌دار داشت. بیشترین کاهش محتوای نسبی آب برگ مربوط به ارقام سبز و سیاه درشت و بالاترین میزان نشت الکترولیت‌ها مربوط به رقم سیاه بود. کاهش کلروفیل در رقم سبز بیشتر از سایر ارقام بود و کمترین آن در رقم سیاه درشت مشاهده شد. بیشترین تجمع پرولین وکربوهیدرات به‌ترتیب مربوط به رقم برویل و ارقام برانجیر ویل و سیاه بود. هم‌چنین بیشترین کاهش پروتئین  در رقم سیاه و سیاه درشت مشاهده شد. حداکثر افزایش در میزان پتاسیم و سدیم مربوط به رقم سیاه درشت بود. بر اساس نتایج به‌دست آمده ارقام سیاه و برانجیر ویل با داشتن برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی مشابه، از نظر تحمل به خشکی تقریبا معادل یکدیگر ارزیابی شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation on physiological, morphological and biochemical parameters associated with the drought tolerance in four edible fig and two capri fig cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Sajedi 1
  • M. Esna-Ashari 2
  • M. Jafari 3
  • E. Aslmoshtaghi 4
1 Graduate M.Sc. of Horticulture, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
3 Researcher, Estahban Fig Research Station, Etahban, Iran
4 Ph.D. Student of Horticulture, Department of Horticultural Sciences, University of Shiraz, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Plant responses to water deprivation are usually monitored through selected parameters which have been proven to be good indicators of drought in different studies. Some of the most important standards for evaluating plants under drought stress are measurements of physiological, morphological and biochemical parameters. These parameters have been found to generally reflect drought adaptation and could be used to select drought-tolerant species suitable to cultivate in dry and/or semi-dried lands. In this study, the effect of drought stress on some above-mentioned parameters in six fig cultivars including Sabz, Siah, Siahe Dorosht, Shah Anjir, Bare Veil and Bare poozdombali was investigated through a two-year experiment.
Materials and methods
The study was conducted in a factorial experiment based on a complete randomized design with four replications and three drought stress levels including field capacity as the control and 50 and 25% of field capacity as mild and severe stress, respectively.
Results
The highest amount of reduction in the above-mentioned parameters was observed under severe stress showing significant differences with the control and mild stress. The highest amount of relative water content associated with Sabz and Siah Dorosht cultivars and the greatest level of electrolyte leakage belonged to Siah cultivar. Chlorophyll reduction in Sabz was higher than the others and the least was observed in Siah Dorosht. The greatest proline accumulation was related to Bare Veil and the highest carbohydrate accumulation belonged to Bare Veil and Siah cultivars. The highest amount of protein reduction was also observed in Siah and Siah Dorosht without a significant difference. Maximum increase in the amount of potassium and sodium was observed in Siah Dorosht cultivar.
Discussion
Results indicated that, Siah and Bare Veil cultivars had approximately similar physiological and biochemical characteristics, so they evaluated as drought tolerant cultivars. It seems that fig plant employs a combination of mechanisms to overcome drought stress. Osmotic regulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of the fig plant tissue’s fluid to maintain the homeostasis of the tissue’s water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or too concentrated. In this study, the two above-mentioned drought-tolerant fig cultivars synthesized considerable amounts of proteins, carbohydrates and proline to regulate their tissues osmotic pressure resulting in better growth under drought stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carbohydrate
  • Chlorophyll
  • Drought stress
  • Fig
  • Proline
  • Protein
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