بررسی اثرات محلول‌پاشی کلریدکلسیم روی برگ و میوه بر ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیکی میوه خربزه درختی (Carica papaya L. cv. Eksotika II) در مرحله پس از برداشت

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران

2 دانش‌آموخته دکتری علوم باغبانی، گروه علوم زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه پوترا مالزی، سلانگور، مالزی و استادیار مرکز تحقیقات خرما و میوه‌های گرمسیری، هرمزگان، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور ارزیابی تأثیر روش محلول‌پاشی کلریدکلسیم بر کیفیت میوه خربزه درختی (Carica papaya L. cv. Eksotika II) آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با دو عامل کلرید کلسیم با غلظت‌های (صفر، 5/0، 1، 5/1 و2 درصد) و روش محلول‌پاشی (برگی، میوه‌ای و برگ + میوه) اجرا گردید. محلول‌پاشی 21 روز پس از مرحله گلدهی شروع شده و هر دو هفته یک بار طی شش نوبت ادامه یافت. مقدار کلسیم، منیزیم، تنفس، اتیلن، سفتی بافت، اسید قابل تیتر، مواد جامد محلول، استحکام دیواره سلولی و کیفیت میوه پس از سه هفته انبارمانی در دمای 1±12 درجه سلسیوس و رطوبت نسبی 85 تا 90 درصد اندازه‌گیری شد. بیشترین میزان کلسیم میوه در روش محلول‌پاشی برگ + میوه و کمترین آن در محلول‌پاشی برگی مشاهده گردید. کمترین مقدار منیزیم پوست و گوشت میوه در روش محلول‌پاشی میوه و برگ + میوه، و بیشترین آن در محلول‌پاشی برگی وجود داشت. شدت تنفس و تولید اتیلن میوه در روش محلول‌پاشی میوه و برگ + میوه در غلظت‌های مختلف کلسیم کاهش یافت. کمترین میزان غلظت مواد جامد محلول میوه در روش محلول‌پاشی برگ + میوه مشاهده شد و روش میوه‌ای و برگی بعد از آن قرار گرفتند. ولی تأثیر روش محلول‌پاشی روی اسید قابل تیتر میوه معکوس بود. به‌طورکلی، با افزایش غلظت کلریدکلسیم تا حداکثر 5/1 درصد در محلول‌پاشی میوه و برگ + میوه مقدار کلسیم در پوست و گوشت میوه، اسید قابل تیتر و کیفیت کلی میوه افزایش یافت. در حالی‌که، افزایش غلظت کلسیم درمحلول‌پاشی برگی بر میزان کلسیم پوست و گوشت میوه اثری نداشت اما اسید قابل تیتر افزایش یافت. بنابراین روش برگ + میوه بر کیفیت میوه خربزه درختی مؤثرتر بود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Calcium Chloride Sprays to the Leaves and Fruits on Postharvest Physiological Characteristics of Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Eksotika II) Fruits

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Mirshekari 1
  • B. Madani 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, University of Yasouj, Yasouj, Iran
2 Graduate Ph.D. of Horticulture Science, Department of Crop Science, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia and Assistant Professor of Date Palm and Tropical Fruit Research Center, Hormozgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit crop. The ‘Eksotika II’ is high yielding cultivar with pleasant aroma, but fruits soften quickly and lose their quality. Low calcium content causes low fruit quality and storage life. Foliar application of calcium on the fruit is significant to make the cell membrane integrity and cell wall firm and improve fruit quality. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of calcium chloride foliar application on postharvest quality of papaya fruits.
Materials and methods
In order to evaluate the effect of calcium chloride (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2) on leaves, fruits and leaves + fruits of papaya, a factorial experiment based on RCBD was conducted in 2012. Calcium chloride was sprayed starting 21 days after flower anthesis and continued every two weeks for six times. Fruits were stored at 12±1 ̊C and RH=85-90% after harvest. The calcium and magnesium, respiration rate and ethylene, firmness, titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids concentration (SSC) and quality were determined 21 days after storage.
Results
The highest calcium content in fruits was observed with fruits and fruits + leaves sprayed treatments, while the lowest was recorded on leaves sprayed. Magnesium in peel and pulp of fruits that sprayed on fruits or fruits + leaves was lowest, while the highest was observed in leaves sprayed. Decreased in respiration rate and ethylene production were observed in fruits sprayed on fruits and fruits + leaves. The SSC was lowest in fruits + leaves treatment. Inverse results were recorded for TA. Moreover, calcium content in the peel and pulp, TA and overall quality increased when calcium chloride concentration in fruits and fruits + leaves treatments increased, While there was no effect on calcium content when applied to the leaves, but it increased TA.
Discussion
Results of this study showed that calcium could not transfer from leaf to fruit and vice versa in papaya. Since calcium moves in the transpiration stream, little or no subsequent translocation occurs from leaf to fruit. Unchanged ethylene production and respiration rate when calcium was applied to the leaves might be related to the immobility of calcium. Calcium was considered as a binding agent between cell walls which result in higher fruit firmness. Calcium is hypothesized to delay ripening by reducing disintegration of tissues and maintaining membrane integrity. The positive correlation might be related to magnesium and malate in fruits and malate might not be used in the process of respiration and thus increase in TA. The effect of calcium in decreasing SSC in fruits is possibly due to the decreasing respiration rate and metabolism activity that postpones ripening process.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ethylene
  • Fruit quality
  • Nutrition
  • Storage

References

Agusti, M., Juan, M., Martinez-Fuentes, A., Mesejo, C., and Almela, V. (2004). Calcium nitrate delays climacteric of persimmon fruit. Annals of Applied Biology, 144: 65-9.

Ali, A., Mahmud, T.M.M., Sijam, K., and Siddiqui, K. (2010). Potential of chitosan coating in delaying the postharvest anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) of Eksotika II papaya. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45: 2134-2140.

Bhat, M.Y., Ahsan, H., Banday, F.A., Dar, M.A., Imtiyaz Wani, A., and Hassan, G.I. (2012). Effect of harvest dates, pre harvest calcium sprays and storage period on physico-chemical characteristics of pear cv. Bartlett. E3 Journal of Agricultural Research and Development, 4: 101-106.

Cheour, F., Willemot, C., Arul, J., Makhlouf, J., and Desjardins, Y. (1991). Postharvest response of two strawberry cultivars to foliar application of CaCl2. HortScience, 26: 1186-1188.

Dris, R. and Niskanen, R. (1999). Calcium chloride sprays decrease physiological disorders following long-term cold storage of apple.Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 54: 159-171.

Dris, R., Niskanen, R., and Fallahi, E. (1999). Relationships between leaf and fruit minerals and fruit quality attributes of apples grown under northern conditions. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 12: 1839-1851.

Etienne, A., Genard, M., Lobit, P., Mbeguié-A-Mbeguie, D., and Bugaud, C. (2013). What controls fleshy fruit acidity? A review of malate and citrate accumulation in fruit cells. Journal of Experimental Botany, 64: 1451-1469.

Ferguson, I.B. (1984). Calcium in plant senescence and fruit ripening. Plant, Cell & Environment, 7(6): 477-489.

Gerasopoulos, D., Chouliaras, V., and Lionakis, S. (1996). Effect of preharvest calcium chloride spray on maturity and storability of Hayward kiwifruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 7: 65-72.

Ghani, M.A.A., Awang, Y., and Sijam, K. (2011). Disease occurrence and fruit quality of pre-harvest calcium treated red flesh dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus). African Journal of Biotechnology, 9: 1550-1558.

Kader, A.A. (2002). Postharvest technology of horticultural crops. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication, Oakland. P. 535.

Kadir, S.A. (2005). Fruit quality at harvest of ‘Jonathan’ apple treated with foliarly-applied calcium chloride. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 27: 1991-2006.

Madani, B., Mohamed, M.T.M., Awang, Y., Kadir, J., and Patil, V.D. (2013). Effects of calcium treatment applied around the root zone on nutrient concentration and morphological traits of papaya seedlings (Carica papaya L. cv. Eksotika II). Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5: 568-572.

Malakouti, M.J., Tabatabaei, S.J., Shahabi, A., and Fallahi, E. (1999). Effects of calcium chloride on apple fruit quality of trees grown in calcareous soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 22: 1451-1454.

Marschner, H. (1995). Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 2nd ed. Academic Press Inc., London. P. 889.

Mills, H.A. and Benton-Jones, J. (1996). Plant analysis handbook II: A practical sampling, preparation, analysis, and interpretation guide. Micro-Macro Publisher, Athens. P. 422.

Morard, P., Pujos, A., Bernadac, A., and Bertoni, G. (1996). Effect of temporary calcium deficiency on tomato growth and mineral nutrition. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 19: 115-127.

Nabigol, A. (2012). Pre-harvest calcium sulfate application improves postharvest quality of cut rose flowers. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5: 1078-1083.

Ortiz, A., Graell, J., and Isabel, L. (2011). Preharvest calcium sprays improve volatile emission at commercial harvest of ‘Fuji Kiku-8’ Apples. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59: 335-341.

Paull, R.E. and Duarte, O. (2011). Tropical fruits. CABI Publisher, Wallingford. P. 400.

Qiu, Y., Nishina, M.S., and Paull, R.E. (1995). Papaya fruit growth, calcium uptake and fruit ripening. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 1204: 246-253.

Raese, J.T. and Drake, S.R. (2000). Effect of calcium spray materials, rate, time of spray application, and rootstocks on fruit quality of ‘Red’ and ‘Golden delicious’ apples. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 23: 1435-1447.

Ranggana, M. (1986). Hand Book of analysis and quality control of fruit and vegetable products. Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi. P. 205.

Recasens, I., Benavides, A., Puy, J., and Casero, T. (2004). Pre-harvest calcium treatments in relation with respiration rate and ethylene production of ‘Golden Smoothee’ apples. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84: 765-771.

Rohani, M. (1994). Papaya: Fruit development, postharvest physiology, handling and marketing in ASEAN. ASEAN Food Handling Bureau, Malaysia. P. 144.

Saltveit, M.E. (1982). Procedure for extracting and analyzing internal gas samples from plant tissue by gas chromatography. HortScience, 17: 878-881.

Sams, C.E. and Conway, W.S. (1984). Effect of calcium infiltration on ethylene production, respiration rate, soluble polyuronide content, and quality of ‘Golden Delicious’ apple fruit. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 109: 53-57.

Saure, M.C. (2005). Calcium translocation to fleshy fruit: its mechanism and endogenous control. Scientia Horticulturae, 105: 65-89.

Schell, J. (1997). Interdependence of pH, malate concentration, and calcium and magnesium concentrations in the xylem sap of beech roots. Tree Physiology, 17: 479-483.

Serrano, M., Amoros, A., Pretel, M.T., Martınez-Madrid, M.C., Madrid, R., and Romojaro, F. (2002). Effect of calcium deficiency on melon (Cucumis melo L.) texture and glassiness incidence during ripening. Food Science and Technology International, 8: 147-154.

Seymour, G.B., Taylor, J., and Tucker, G.A. (1993). Biochemistry of fruit ripening. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp: 273-290.

Singh, R., Sharma, R.R., and Tyagi, S.K. (2007). Pre-harvest foliar application of calcium and boron influences physiological disorders, fruit yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.). Scientia Horticulturae, 112: 215-220.

Singh, R.P., Tandon, D.K., and Kalra, S.K. (1993). Change in post-harvest quality of mangoes affected by pre-harvest application of calcium salts. Scientia Horticulturae, 54: 211-219.

Stow, J. (1993). Effect of calcium ions on apple fruit softening during storage and ripening. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 3: 1-9.

Toivonen, P.M.A., and Bowen, P.A. (1999). The effect of preharvest foliar sprays of calcium on quality and shelf life of two cultivars of sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) grown in plasticulture. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 79: 411-416.

Torre, S., Borochov, A., and Halevy, A.H. (1999). Calcium regulation of senescence in roses. Physiologia Plantarum, 107: 214-219.

Tzortzakis, N., Borland, A., Singleton, I., and Barnes, J. (2007). Impact of atmospheric ozone-enrichment on quality-related attributes of tomato fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 45: 317-325.

Vicente, A.R., Saladie, M., Rose, J.K.C., and Labavitch, J.M. (2007). The linkage between cell wall metabolism and fruit softening: looking to the future. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 87: 1435-1448.

Wang, W.Y., Zhu, B.Z., Lv, J., and Luo, Y.B. (2006). No difference in the regulation pattern of calcium on ethylene biosynthesis between wild-type and never-ripe tomato fruit at mature green stage. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 1: 54-61.

Wójcik, P. and Borowik, M. (2013). Influence of preharvest sprays of a mixture of calcium formate, calcium acetate, calcium chloride and calcium nitrate on quality of ‘Jonagold’ apple storability. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 36: 2023-2034.

Yuen, C.M.C. (1994). Calcium and fruit storage potential. Australian Quarterly International Agricultural Research, 50: 218-227.