بررسی تأثیر کمپوست زباله شهری و وزن بنه بر صفات کیفی و میزان متابولیت‌های ثانویه زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد فیزیولوژی گیاهان دارویی، ادویه‌ای و عطری، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی و مرکز پژوهشی گیاهان ویژه منطقه، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه علوم خاک و مرکز پژوهشی گیاهان ویژه منطقه، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور ارزیابی تأثیر سطوح مختلف کمپوست زباله شهری و وزن بنه بر صفات کیفی و متابولیت‌های ثانویه زعفران، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه بیرجند در سال زراعی 1394 به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل کمپوست زباله شهری در چهار سطح (صفر، 5، 10 و 20 تن در هکتار) و وزن بنه در سه سطح (4-1/0، 8-1/4 و 12-1/8 گرم) در نظر گرفته شد. صفات مورد بررسی شامل: فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانتی، فنول کل و آنتوسیانین گلبرگ و کروسین، پیکروکروسین و سافرانال کلاله بود. بر اساس نتایج آزمایش، بالاترین میزان فنول کل و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانتی (به‌ترتیب، 0789/10 میلی‌گرم در صد گرم وزن خشک و 06/65 درصد) از تیمار 20 تن در هکتار کمپوست زباله شهری و پایین‌ترین آن‌ها (به‌ترتیب، 0785 /10 میلی‌گرم در صد گرم وزن خشک و 58/62 درصد) در تیمار شاهد مشاهده شد. هم‌چنین، نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش سطوح کمپوست زباله شهری میزان مواد مؤثره زعفران (کروسین، پیکروکروسین و سافرانال) به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت. وزن بنه هم بر فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانتی گلبرگ و مواد مؤثره زعفران تأثیر معنی‌داری داشت، به‌طوری‌که با افزایش وزن بنه، این صفات هم افزایش یافت. هم‌چنین اثر برهمکنش کمپوست زباله شهری و وزن بنه بر مواد مؤثره زعفران مثبت و معنی‌دار گردید. نتایج این تحقیق بیانگر اثرات سودمند کاربرد کمپوست زباله شهری (در سطوح کم و متوسط) و بنه‌های مادری (متوسط و بزرگ) بر بهبود صفات بیوشیمیایی و مواد مؤثره زعفران بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Effects of Municipal Waste Compost and Corm Weight on Qualitative Characteristic and Secondary Metabolites of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Gholizade 1
  • M.H. Aminifard 2
  • M.H. Sayyari 3
1 M.Sc. Student of Medicnal Plants Physiology, Spices and Aromas, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Horticultural Science and Special Plants Regional Research Centre, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Sciences and Special Plants Regional Research Centre, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Organic fertilizers are carbon-based compounds that increase the productivity and growth quality of plants. Municipal waste compost is an organic manure that improves the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil and adds organic matter and exerts a positive effect on elements absorption, quality and yield of saffron. In addition, in saffron cultivation, it is possible to produce considerable amounts of stigma by using of standard mother corms with a minimum weight of 8 g. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate the interaction effects of municipal waste compost and mother corm size on chemical properties of saffron.
Materials and methods
This experiment was conducted with a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, University of Birjand during the growing season of 2014-2015. Treatments were four levels of municipal waste compost (0, 5, 10 and 20 t.ha-1) and three mother corm weights (0.1-4, 4.1-8 and 8.1-12 g). Flower of saffron was measured during autumn of 2015. Total phenol was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Free radical scavenging activity of the samples was determined using DPPH method. Secondary metabolites of saffron (crocin, picrocrocin and safranal) were measured according to Iran’s national standard.
Results
The results showed that the highest total phenol and antioxidant activity (10.0789 mg.100 gr-1 and 65.66%, respectively) was obtained in treatment 20 t. ha-1 compost and the lowest (10.0785 mg.100 gr-1 and 62.58%) was recorded in control. Results showed that addition of the compost rate significantly increased secondary metabolites (crocin, picrocrocin and safranal). So, corm weight had a significant effect on antioxidant activity and the main secondary metabolites and the highest characteristics were obtained for corm with 8.1-12 g. As, the effect of interaction of municipal waste compost and corm weight significantly affected the main secondary metabolites.
Discussion
The results showed that fertilizer treatment and corm weight influenced chemical properties and the main second metabolites of saffron positively. It has been reported that plants cannot simultaneously allocate resources to growth and defence and that there is competition between proteins and phenolics in plants for the common precursors involved in their biosynthesis .These results led us to presume that saffron plants may utilise benefits from compost fertilizer for their protein synthesis and growth development. On the other hand, organic matter (e.g. compost) acts as precursors or activators of phytohormones and growth substances and secondary compounds in plants. The type of soil and the content of organic compounds in soil can have a decisive effect on increasing the content of organic compounds in soil and strengthening antioxidant activity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant
  • Compost
  • Crocin
  • Nutrition
  • Saffron

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