تأثیر تلقیح قارچ میکوریز (Rhizophagus irregularis) در سطوح مختلف کم آبیاری بر تولید ریزغده در سیب‌زمینی

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان همدان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، همدان، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

3 کارشناس ارشد بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان همدان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، همدان، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر قارچ میکوریز آربسکولار در شرایط کم آبیاری بر عملکرد کمی ریزغده‌های سیب‌زمینی، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار و در شرایط گلخانه به اجرا درآمد. تیمارها عبارت بودند از: سطوح آبیاری شامل 100 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه (شاهد)، 85 درصد، 75 درصد و 65 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه و دو سطح تلقیح ریزغده‌های رقم سانته با قارچ میکوریز گونه Rhizophagus irregularis و عدم تلقیح با قارچ مذکور. درصد کلونیزاسیون ریشه، تعداد ریزغده تولیدی در اندازه‌های کوچکتر از 3 گرم، 3 تا 5 گرم و بزرگتر از 5 گرم و هم‌چنین درصد ماده خشک ریزغده از صفات مورد اندازه‌گیری بودند. نتایج نشان داد که قارچ مذکورقابلیت بالایی در جهت ایجاد کلونیزاسیون با گیاهچه‌های سیب‌زمینی دارد (متوسط 08/68 درصد). در تیمار میکوریزی با 85 درصد تأمین آب در حد ظرفیت مزرعه تعداد ریزغده بیشتری در اندازه‌های مختلف تولید شد که ریزغده تولید شده در اندازه 3 تا 5 گرم تفاوت معنی‌داری با دیگر سطوح آبیاری داشت. از طرفی در تیمارهای میکوریزی در مقایسه با تیمارهای غیر میکوریزی تعداد ریزغده افزایش پیدا کرد. در مجموع در تولید تعداد ریزغده و درصد ماده خشک آن، تیمارهای میکوریزی با تأمین 65 و 75 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه، وضعیتی هم سطح و قابل رقابت با عدم کاربرد میکوریز در تیمارهای 100 و 85 درصد داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungus (Rhizophagus Irregularis) Inoculation in Different Levels of Water Deficit on Minituber Production in Potato

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kh. Parvizi 1
  • Y. Parvizi 2
  • A. Navaei 3
1 Assistant Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Department, Hamedan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Hamedan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Graduate M.Sc. of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seed and Plant Improvement Department, Hamedan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
The symbiotic relationship between arbuscular mycorrizae and plants can improve plant growth by increasing mineral nutrient absorption, tolerance to diseases and stresses such as drought, temperature fluctuation, metal toxicity, salinity and other adverse conditions. Micro propagation of potato by micro and mini tubers have been established for improving multiplication rate and possibility of reserving some more stock plants as germplasm. Multiplication of the minitubers already has been accompanied by lower establishment that causes low vigor and performance of the plant especially in water stress conditions. This experiment was done to study the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus inoculation on vigor and performance of planlets derived from minituber in green house conditions.
Material and Methods
This experiment was conducted as factorial based on a randomized complete design with four replications. The treatments were irrigation levels (100%, 85%, 75% and 65% of field capacity) and two levels of culture medium inoculation (inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis and non- inoculation). The amount of water supplement was evaluated according to their treatment by weighing the boxes and calculating the amount of field capacity base. The method described by Gonigle et al (1990) was used for root colonization assessment. Mini-tuber obtained from any plant was weighed, arranged in three groups. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out using SAS software (v. 8.02, SAS Institute, Cary, NC).
Results
Analysis of variance showed that in all minitubers the main effects of incubation with mycorrhiza, irrigation levels and their interaction were significantly different (p≤0.05). Minituber dry matter percentage showed a significant difference (p≤0.05) with mycorrhizal inoculation and interaction between mycorrhiza and irrigation levels. Means comparison showed that generally more minituber production in different sizes was accomplished by mycorrhizal treatments in all irrigation levels in comparison with non-inoculated ones. The most minitubers in different sizes were accomplished with inoculated and providing 85% FC water treatment. Inoculation of minitubers in 65% and 75% FC of irrigation levels did the same as the competitive situation with non-inoculated miniturbers in 85% and 100% of irrigation at the most traits related with quantity and quality of minituber production.
Discussions
It is concluded that although mycorrhiza was able to promote growth and final yield of minituber production and multiplication rate, this ability is not limited and can be extended ultimately by critical threshold of water accessibility. Dry matter of minituber was affected by application of mycorrhiza in four irrigation regimes. In relation with minituber dry matter, it is conceived that mycorrhiza can affect the dry matter of minituber but irrigation levels must be remarkable in this situation. Generally, it is concluded that mycorrhiza had considerable effect on performance of planted minitubers by adjustment of water stress through promoting mineral nutrients absorption and increasing osmotic potential capability. This ability could be different with intensity of water deficiency.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Symbiotic fungus
  • Tuberization
  • Water deficit
  • Yield

References

Auge, R.M. (2004). Arbuscular mycorrhizae and soil/plant water relations. Canadian Journal Soil Science, 84: 373-381.

Bajaj, Y.P.S. and Sopory S.K. (1988). Biotechnology of potato improvement, In Bajaj, Y.P.S. (3th Eds). Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry 2. Springer-Verlag Germany. pp: 429-454.

Chen, X., Chunhua, W., Jianjun, T., and Shuijin, H. (2005). Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhance metal lead uptake and growth of host plant under a sand culture experiment. Chemospher Journal, 60: 665-671.

Dalpe, Y. (1993). Vesicular- Arboscular Mycorrhiza, Soil sampling and method of analysis. Soil Science Society, Lewis Publisher. pp: 278-301.

David, D., Gerald, N., Carolyn, R., and Paul, R.H. (2007). Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increases the yield of potatoes in a high P soil. Biological Agriculture Horticulture, 25: 67-78.

Davies, J., Calderon, F.T., and Huainan, Z. (2005). Influence of arhuscular on growth, Yield, and leaf elemental concentration of 'Yungay' potatoes. Hort Science, 40: 381-385.

Duffy, E.M., Hurley E., and Casseles, A.C. (1999). Weaning performance of potato microplants following bacterization and micorrhization. Potato Research, 42: 521-527.

Ekelof, J. (2007). Potato yield and tuber set as affected by phosphorus fertilization. Master project in the horticultural Science Programme, Netherland, ED (ECTS). pp: 130-135.

Elizabeth, M., Duffy, A., and Cassele, C. (2000). The effect of inoculation of potato microplant with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on tuber yield and tuber size distribution. Applied Soil Ecology, 15: 137-144.

Ewing, E.E. (1997). The physiology of vegetable crops. CABI Publishing. pp: 285-295.

Fortin, J.A., Becard G., Dalpe S and St- Arnoud, M.Y. (2002). Arbuscular mycorrhiza on root-organ cultures. Canadian Journal Botany, 80: 1-20.

Gallou, A., Mosquerab, H.P.L., Cranenbrouckc, S., Suarezb. J.P., and Declerck, S. (2011). Mycorrhiza induced resistance in potato plantlets challenged by Phytophthora infestans. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 76: 20-26.

Gaurav, S.S., Sirohi S.P.S., Singh, B., and Sirohi, P. (2010). Effect of mycorrhiza on growth, yield and tuber deformity in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown under water stress conditions. Journal of Progressive Agriculture, 10: 31-40.

Goicoechea, N., Antolin M.C., and Sanchez-Díaz, M. (1997). Influence of arbuscular my-corrhizae and Rhizobium on nutrient content and water relations in drought stressed alfalfa. Journal of Plant and Soil, 192: 261- 268.

Gonigle, T., Miller, M., and Swan, J. (1990). A new method that gives an objective measure of colonization of roots by vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytology, 115: 495-501.

Mohammad, M., Abrishamchi, A., Khoshbakht, K., and Niknam, V. (2014). Plant hormones as signals in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 34(2): 123-133

Naher, U.A., Othman, R., and Panhwar, Q.A. (2013). Beneficial effects of mycorrhizal association for crop production in the tropics (a review). International. Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 15: 1021-1028.

Otazu, V. (2010). Manual on quality seed potato production using aeroponics. International potato Cenre (CIP). Lima, Peru. pp: 33-44.

Parvizi, k., Dashti, F., and Esna Ashari, M. (2011). Symbiotic effect of Arbuscular mycorrhiza on growth regulators levels, growth properties and yield in potato plantlets in vitro and ex vitro. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Horticulture Bu-Ali Sina University, Iran.

Phillips, J.M. and Hayman, D.S. (1970). Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Mycology Society Journal, 55: 159-161.

Rolot, J., Seutin, H., and Michelant, D. (2002).  Production de minitubercules de pomme de terre par hydroponic. Biotechnology Agronomy Society Environment, 6(3): 155-161.

Ryan, N.A., Deliopoulos T., Jones, P., and Haydock, P.P. (2003). Effects of mixed-isolate mycorrhizal inoculums on the potato- potato cyst nematode interaction. Annual Applied Biology, 143: 111-119.

Sanchez-Blanco, M.J., Ferrnandez, T., Morales, M.A., Morte, A., and Alarcon, J.J. (2001). Variation in water status, gas exchange, and growth in Rosmarinus officinalis plants infected with Glumus deserticola under drought conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology, 161: 675-682.

Smith, S.E. and Read, D.J. (2008). Mycorrhizal symbiosis. 3rd edit. London Academic Press. pp: 751-787.

Soltani, H. (2010). Techniques for culture and multiplication of potato by mini- tuber. Agricultural Research. Education and Extention organization, Iran, Report extention. pp: 35.

Souza, A.T., Streck, N.A., Heldwein, A. B., Bisognin, D. A., Minussi W.J.E., Rocha, T.S., and Zanon, A.J. (2014). Transpiration and leaf growth of potato clones in response to soil water deficit. Scientia Agricola, 71(2): 96-104.

Tobar, R., Azcon, R., and Barea, J.M. (1994). Improved nitrogen uptake and transport from 15N-labelled nitrate by external hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhiza under water-stressed conditions. New Phytologist, 126: 119-122.

Wu, Q.S. and Xia, R.X. (2006). Arbascular mycorrhiza fungi influence growth, osmotic adjustment and photosynthesis of citrus under well watered and water stress conditions. Journal of Plant Production, 8: 47-55.