اثر محلول پاشی عنصر روی بر روند رشد لوله گرده در مادگی چند رقم سیب

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد میوه‌کاری، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

چکیده

بیشتر ارقام سیب خودناسازگار بوده و برای تشکیل میوه نیازمند به دگر گرده‌افشانی می‌باشند. عنصر روی یکی از عوامل تأثیرگذار در جوانه‌زنی دانه گرده روی کلاله است و از این طریق باعث افزایش تشکیل میوه می‌شود. در این پژوهش اثر محلول‌پاشی روی با سه غلظت صفر، 3000 و 5000 میلی‌گرم در لیتر بر روی جوانه‌های گل چهار رقم فوجی، گلدن دلیشز، رد دلیشز و گالا بررسی و تأثیر این عنصر بر درصد جوانه‌زنی و روند رشد لوله گرده در مادگی‌های حاصل از تلاقی‌های چهار رقم در دو زمان 72 و120 ساعت پس از گرده افشانی با میکروسکوپ فلورسنت مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. این آزمایش در سال 1393 در باغ تحقیقاتی دانشگاه شاهد، تهران انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر عنصر روی بر درصد جوانه‌زنی در سطح کلاله و میزان نفوذ لوله‌های گرده در قسمت ابتدا خامه، میانه خامه و تخمدان در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی‌دار بود. هم‌چنین، بیشترین درصد جوانه‌زنی در ترکیب تلاقی ارقام ♀Golden Delicious × Gala♂ با تیمار 3000 میلی‌گرم در لیتر روی و در زمان 120 ساعت با درصد جوانه‌زنی 40/59 درصد در سطح کلاله مشاهده شد و بیشترین نفوذ لوله گرده به قسمت ابتدایی تخمدان با 08/18 درصد در ترکیب تلاقی ♀Gala × Fuji♂ در زمان 120 ساعت و با تیمار 5000 میلی‌گرم در لیتر روی به‌دست آمد. در مجموع محلول‌پاشی عنصر روی باعث افزایش درصد جوانه‌زنی و میزان رشد لوله گرده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Zinc Foliar Spray on Pollen Tube Growth in Pistils of Some Apple Cultivars Crosses

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Fallah Moafi 1
  • Y. Sharafi 2
1 M.Sc. Student of Pomology, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Apple is one the most important horticultural crops in Iran. As the most apple cultivars are self-incompatible, having a good fruit set requires favorable cross-pollination. However, this phenomenon is related to a series ofcomplex processeswhich happens on thestigma. Zinc is one of the main factors that affects pollination and has an important role in increasing the percentage of pollen germination thereby increasing fruit set. It has been reported that zinc is referred to be as a main growth element because of its role in hormone production in buds specially auxin biosynthesis. Auxin is the most important hormone which affects pollen tube penetration to the style and so, fruit set in plants. Zinc deficiency in the apple orchards primarily affects the above ground portions of trees, resulting in poor leaf and shoot growth, reduced flowering and fruit set, and reduced size and coloring of fruit. Zinc is also important in the movement of calcium within the tree. Using zinc sprays is the most consistent and cost effective way to apply this element in apple tree orchards.
Materials and Methods
In this research, the effect of zinc solution in three levels (0, 3000 and 5000 mg.l) was studied on pollen penetration to the ovary in the crosses  among four apple cultivars including Golden Delicious, Red Delicious, Gala, Fuji. Pollen penetration was studied 72 and 120 hours using fluorescent microscopy technique in the laboratory after field pollination. Crosses among the cultivars included 1- ♀Red delicious × Golden delicious♂, 2- ♀Galla × Fuji♂, 3- ♀Red delicious × Fuji♂, 4- ♀Golden delicious × Fuji♂ and ♀Golden delicious × Galla♂.
Results
Results showed that the effects of zinc, crosses and their interaction were significant on pollen germination and tube penetration in the primary, middle of the stigma and top of the ovaries. The highest percentage (59.4%) of germination on the stigma was observed in the cross (♀Golden Delicious × Gala ♂), in 120 hours and the highest penetration of pollen tube in ovary (18.08%) was observed at the cross point of 5000 ppm of Zinc, in 120 hours respectively.
Discussion
In this research the foliar application of Zinc (until 3000 mg.l) increased pollen germination and tube growth on the stigma in all of the studied four apple cultivars. Although, increasing zinc concentration to 5000 mg.l showed negative effects on the both characteristics which showed the tolerance range of the cultivars to the zinc concentration based on their genetic traits. However, increasing the Zinc concentration to 5000 mg.l led to increased pollen tube growth and penetration to the different parts of the styles in all of the crosses linearly.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cross
  • Florescent microscopy
  • Ovary
  • Pollen germination

References

Ahmed, F.F., Darwish, O.H., Gobara, A.A., & Ali, A.H. (2002). Physiological studies on the effect of ascorbic and citric acids in combined with some micronutrients on “Flame Seedless” grape vines. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development, 22(1): 105-114.

Ayaz, F.A. and Kadioglu, A. (1996). The effect of heavy metals on the isoenzymes of amylase and peroxidase during germination of lentil (Lens esculenta L.) seeds. Turkish Journal of Botany, 20(6): 503-507.

Broothaerts, W. and Van Nerum, I. (2002). Apple self-incompatibility genotypes: an overview. In XXVI International Horticultural Congress: Genetics and Breeding of Tree Fruits and Nuts, 622: 379-387.

Dantas, A.C.M., Morales, L.K.A., Pedrotti, E.L., Nodari, R.O., Guerra, M.P. (2002). Superacao in vitro da dormência de embriões do porta-enxerto de macieira M9 (Malus pumilla Mill.). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 24(1): 10-14.

De-Albuquerque Junior, C.L., Denardi, F., De-Mesquita Dantas, A.C., and Nodari, R.O. (2010). Notas cientificas desenvolvimento de tubos polinicos em cruzamentos entre cultivars brasileiras de macieira. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasilieira, 45(11): 1324-1327.

Dewet, E. and P.J. Robbertse. (1989). The influence of temperature and boron on pollen germination in Mangifera indica. Suud Afrikanse Tydskrift fur Plant und Grond 6: 228-234.

Ender, C., Li, M.Q., Martin, B., Povh, B., Nobiling, R., Reiss, H.D., and Traxel, K. (1983). Demonstration of polar zinc distribution in pollen tubes ofLilium longiflorum with the Heidelberg proton microprobe. Protoplasma, 116(2-3): 201-203.

Hipps, N.A. and Davies, M.J. (2000). Effects of foliar zinc applications at different times in the growing season on tissue zinc concentrations, fruit set, yield and grade out of culinary 10 apple trees. In IV International Symposium on Mineral Nutrition of Deciduous Fruit Crops, 564: 145-151.

Imani, A., Barzegar, K., Piripireivatlou, S., and Masomi, S.H. (2011). Storage of apple pollen and in vitro germination. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(3): 624-629.

Jefferies, C.J. and Brain, P. (1984). A mathematical model of pollen tube penetration in apple Styles. Planta, 160(1): 52-58.

Linskens, H.F. and Esser, K.L. (1957). Uber eine spezifische Anfärbung der Pollenschläuche im Griffel und die Zahl der Kallosepfropfen nach Selbstung und Fremdung. The Science of Nature- Naturwissenschaften, 44(1): 16-16.

Losada, J.M. and Herrero, M. (2014). Glycoprotein composition along the pistil of (Malus domestica) and the modulation of pollen tube growth. BMC plant biology, 14(1): 1-7.

Marschner, H. (1995). Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Second Academic Press London. P. 672.

Norouzi, S., Malakouti, M.j., and Rezaei, H. (1384). The effects of zinc and boron on seed germination and pollen tube growth of wheat. Ninth Congress of Soil Science, Tehran, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Center. [In Farsi]

Nyomora, A.M., Brown, S., Pinney, P. H., and Polito, V.S. (2000). Foliar application of boron to almond trees affects pollen quality. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 125(2): 265-270.

Pandey, N., Pathak, G.C., and Sharma, C.P. (2006). Zinc is critically required for pollen function and fertilisation in lentil. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 1(20): 89-96.

Qin, X. (1996). Foliar spray of B, Zn and Mg and their effect on Fruit production and quality of jincheng orang. Jurnal of Souuthsest Agricultural Univesity, 18(1): 40-45.

Sedgley, M. (1990). Flowering of deciduous perennial fruit crops. Horticultural Reviews, 12: 223-264.

Socias I Company, R., Kester, D.E., and Bradley, M.V. (1976). Effect of temperature and genotype on pollen tube growth in some self-compatible and self-incompatible almond cultivars. Horticulturale Science. 101: 490-493.

Stanley, R.G. & Linskens, H.F. (1974). Pollen: Biology, Chemistry, management. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. P. 265.

Tuna, A. L., Burun, B., Yokas, I., and E. Coban, 2002, The effects of heavy metals on pollen germination and pollen tube length in the tobacco plant. Turkish Journal of Biology, 26(1): 109-113.

Yoder, K., Yuan, R., Combs, L., Byers, R., McFerson, J., and Schmidt, T. (2009). Effects of temperature and the combination of liquid lime sulfur and fish oil on pollen germination, pollen tube growth, and fruit set in apples. HortScience, 44(5): 1277-1283.