اثرات القاء پلی‌پلوئیدی توسط کلشی‌سین بر صفات مرفولوژیکی پایه ترویر سیترنج (Citrus sinensis cv. Troyer citrange)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

2 استادیار، پژوهشکده فناوری تولیدات گیاهی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

3 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

چکیده

مرکبات از پرمصرف‌ترین و مفیدترین میوه‌ها به شمار می‌آیند و تکثیر آن‌ها بیشتر از طریق پیوند بر روی پایههای مناسب مانند ترویر سیترنج انجام می‌گیرد.در درختان میوه القاء پلی‌پلوئیدی سبب تولید گیاهان پا کوتاه‌تر با برگ‌ها و ساقه ضخیم‌تر و مستحکم‌تر شده و نهایتاً سبب افزایش عملکرد پیوندک می‌شود.هدف از انجام این پژوهش بررسی القاء پلی‌پلوئیدی در پایه پاکوتاه‌کننده ترویرسیترنج توسط تیمارکلشی‌سین و بررسی تغییرات مورفولوژیکی حاصل از آن بوده است. این آزمایش به صورت طرح کامل تصادفی دو مشاهده ای با 4 تکرار و سه غلظت انجام شد. سطوح تیماری شامل کلشی‌سین با غلظت 0/5، 1 و 1/5 درصد و تیمار شاهد (0) بود. اعمال تیمارها در دو مرحله صورت گرفت:در مرحله اول غوطه‌وری نیمی از بذور درسطوح مختلف تیمارها به مدت 30 ساعت و مرحله بعد تیمار گیاهچه‌ها در مرحله چهار برگی با استفاده از سمپلر بر روی مریستم جوانه انتهایی در سه روز متوالی انجام گرفت. نتایج بررسی گیاهچه‌های تیمار شده بیانگر افزایش طول و عرض روزنه‌ها، افزایش اندازه سلول‌های محافظ روزنه، افزایش اندازه کیسه‌های ترشحی بود. ولی کاهش تراکم روزنه‌ها و کیسه‌های ترشحی به همراه بروز برخی صفات ظاهری مانند افزایش ضخامت و میزان رنگ برگ‌ها وکاهش ارتفاع گیاهچه‌ها در نمونه‌های تیمار شده بود. هم‌چنین وجود برخی ناهنجاری‌های جزئی در برگ گیاهچه‌های تیمارشده مثل عدم تقارن، عدم وجود برگچه‌های جانبی و وجود برگچه‌های دندانه دار مشهود بود. تیمار یک درصد کلشی‌سین موثرترین تیمار در القاء پلی‌پلوئیدی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Polyploidy Induction by Colchicines on Morphological Traits of Troyer Citrange Rootstock (Citrus sinensis cv. Troyer Citrange)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Ghafari 1
  • I. Tavassolian 2
  • M. Khezri 3
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Horticultual Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Research and Technology Institute of Plant Production, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultual, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Citrus is one of the most important and useful fruits in the world. They are usually propagated by grafting on suitable rootstocks such as Troyer citrange. In plants especially fruit trees, synthetic induction of polyploidy makes fruit rootstocks more robust, dwarf, with thicker leaves, stems and higher scion yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the best polyploidy induction treatment by colchicine on dwarfing Troyer citrange rootstock and to evaluate its morphological effects.
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in Kerman. Four concentrations of colchicines (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) and control (0%) were used in two phases. In the first phase, 96 seeds were soaked in different concentrations of cholchcines for 30 h and planted in pots. In the second phase, when seeds reached the four leaves stage, meristems were treated by cholchicines. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications.
Results
The results showed that guard cells size, length, width of stomata and secretary vesicles size of colchicine-treated seedlings significantly increased compared to the control. However, lower density of leaves stomata and secretary vesicles in treated plants were observed. Some morphological changes such as leaves thickness, color increase and seedlings dwarfism were detected in treated plants. Moreover, some minor abnormalities on leaves such as asymmetry, lack of lateral leaflets, serrated leaflets existence were evident. The most effective treatment for polyploidy induction was 1% colchicine.
Discussions
Synthetic induction of polyploidy by cholchicine is commonly practiced by fruit breeders because it is inexpensive and effective. High concentrations of colchicine are toxici for seeds may be due to prevention of mitosis in the cells. Moreover, larger stomata size can improve efficiency of photosynthesis. Although the treated seeds or seedlings with 1 and 1.5% colchicines had lower height and stomata density, they are more robust and stronger than control which can be very valuable in rootstock breeding.
 
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Polyploidy
  • Troyer citrange
  • Colchicine
  • Stomata size and density
  • leaf Secretary Vesicles

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