بررسی اثر تراکم بوته، تلقیح بذر با باکتری و روش‌های مختلف کوددهی نیتروژن بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و اسانس گیاه دارویی رازیانه (.Foeniculum vulgare Mill)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس تهران

2 استاد، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس تهران

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد شوشتر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شوشتر، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر سیستم‌های مختلف تغذیه نیتروژن اعم از شیمیایی، آلی و زیستی و هم‌چنین تراکم‌های مختلف بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و اسانس گیاه دارویی رازیانه، آزمایشی به‌صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 18 تیمار و 4 تکرار در سال زراعی 1393-1392 در مزرعه آزمایشی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد شوشتر به انجام رسید. در کرت‌های اصلی، تیمارهای مختلف نیتروژن شامل N1 پخش یکنواخت کود اوره نیمی در زمان کاشت و بقیه در ابتدای ساقه ‌روی، N2 نیمی از کود اوره در زمان کاشت و بقیه در ابتدای ساقه‌ روی به‌صورت محلول‌پاشی، N3 کود گاوی، N4 تلقیح بذر با باکتری‌های ازتوباکتر و آزوسپریلیوم،50N5  درصد نیتروژن از کود گاوی + 50 درصد از منبع اوره،50N6 درصد نیتروژن از کود گاوی + تلقیح بذر با باکتری‌های ازتوباکتر و آزوسپریلیوم قرار گرفتند. در کرت‌های فرعی تراکم رازیانه شامل60FD1  بوته در مترمربع،80FD2  بوته در مترمربع و100FD3  بوته در مترمربع اعمال گردید. بر اساس نتایج حاصله، استفاده از تیمار تلفیقی 1 که شامل کودگاوی و کود شیمیایی نیتروژنه با نسبت 50 :50 بود در کنار به‌کارگیری تراکم 100 بوته در مترمربع، توانست عملکرد دانه معادل 94/575 گرم در مترمربع و اسانسی به میزان 3/375 درصد تولید نماید. این ترکیب تیماری علاوه بر حصول کمیت و کیفیت مطلوب در این آزمایش، سازگاری بیشتری نیز با محیط‌زیست دارد.
 
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Effects of Plant Density, Seed Inoculation with Bacteria and Different Nitrogen Fertilizing Methods on Yield, Yield Components and Essential Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Delfieh 1
  • Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres-Sanavy 2
  • R. Farhoudi 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Fennel is one the most important medicinal and aromatic plants which is widely used in food, medicine and cosmetic industries worldwide. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effects of different nitrogen nutritional systems including chemical, organic and biologic ones at different plant densities on yield, yield components and seed essential oil content and yield of fennel in south western Iran climatic conditions.
Materials and Methods
To do this research, a field experiment was carried out in 2013-2014 agricultural season at Islamic Azad University of Shoushtar agricultural college in split plot design with 18 treatments in 4 replications based on completely randomized blocks design. Different nitrogen system treatments consisting of N1: Uniformly spreading urea fertilizer in the plot, half at planting time and other at stem elongation, N2: Uniformly spreading half of urea fertilizer in the plot at planting time and spraying the other half at stem elongation on fennel foliage, N3: cow manure, N4: Inoculation of fennel seeds with Azotobacter and Azospirillum, N5: Applying half of required nitrogen fertilizer from cow manure and other half from urea, N6: Applying half of required nitrogen fertilizer from cow manure + inoculation of fennel seeds with Azotobacter and Azospirillum were applied to the main plots. Three fennel densities consisting of FD1: 60 plant/m2, FD2: 80 plant/m2 and FD3: 100 plant/m2 were applied to subplots.
Results
Based on the results, utilization of the first integrated treatment which consisted of cow manure and urea as chemical fertilizer at 50:50 percent, along with using 100 plant per m2 as a proper crop density achieved production of 94.575 g/m2 seed yield containing 3.375 percent of essential oil. Other findings showed that Azotobacter+ Azospirillum had no positive effect on plant seed yield and essential oil.
Discussions
The findings of our study showed that replacing 50 percent of required nitrogen with cow manure in fennel could lead to a favorable quantitative and qualitative seed production as well as the treatments which use 100 percent of nitrogen as chemical fertilizers. It seems that nitrogen application with manure probably through increasing organic matter mineralization and mineral absorption, improved the effectiveness of manure. Therefore application of such a combination not only could lead to a desirable fennel quantity and quality, but also is more consistent with environment. Other findings of the present study showed that seed inoculation with bio-fertilizers (Azotobacter + Azospirillum) had no positive effects on plant seed yield and essential oil. For such a result, it could be said that climate and soil conditions and also plant species and varieties are important in bio-fertilizers usefulness and also in determining suitable bacteria species for application.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bio-fertilizer
  • Chemical fertilizer
  • Density
  • Nutritional system
  • Organic fertilizer

References

Akbarinia, A., Khosravifard, M., Rezaee, M.B., and Sharifi Ashoorabadi, E. (2005). Comparison of fall and spring cultivation of fennel, caraway, anise and black cumin under irrigation and no-irrigation conditions. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 21(3): 319-334. [In Farsi]

Badran, F., Abdalla, N., Aly, M., and Ibrahim, S. (2007). Response of fennel plants to seeding rate and partial replacement of mineral NPK by biofertilization treatments. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, 8: 417-422.

Bianco, V.V., Damato, G., and Girardi, A. (1994). Sowing dates, plant density and 'crown' cutting on yield and quality of florence fennel seed. Acta Horticulture, 362: 59-66.

Damato, G., Bianco, V.A., and Laterza, M. (1994). First results of plant density and
nitrogen rate on yield and quality of Florence fennel (Foeniculunm vulgare Mill. Var. azoricum) seeds. Acta Horticulture, 362: 67-73.

Darzi, M.T., Hadj Seyedhadi, M.R., and Rejali, F. (2012). Effects of cattle manure and plant growth promoter bacteria application on some morphological traits and yield in Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 28(3): 434-446. [In Farsi]

Ehsanipour, A., Razmjoo, J., and Zeinali, H. (2012). Effect of nitrogen rates on yield and quality of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) accessions. Industrial Crops and Products 35: 121-125.

Ghilavizadeh, A., Darzi, M., and Haj Seyed Hadi, M. (2013). Effects of biofertilizer and plant density on essntial oil content and yield traits of ajowan (Carum copticum). Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 14(11): 1508-1512.

Ghorbani, S., Paknejad, F., Oroujnia, S., Mirzaei, M., and Babaei, B. (2013). Effect of biofertilizers on grain yield, biological yield and essential oil of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under ecological cropping system. Agronomy and Plant Breeding, 9(1): 63-73. [In Farsi]

Hati, K.M., Mandal, K.G., Misra, A.K., Ghosh, P.K., and Bandyopadhyay, K.K. (2006). Effect of inorganic fertilizer and farmyard manure on soilphysical properties, root distribution, and wateruse efficiency of soybean in Vertisols of central India. Bioresource Technology, 97: 2182-2188.

Jamshidi, E., Ghalavand, A., Sefidkon, F., and Mohammadi Goltapeh, E. (2011). Effects of different nutrition systems (organic, chemical, biologic and integrated) on yield and nutrients concentrations in fennel seed and foliage. Environmental Sciences, 8(4): 59-72. [In Farsi]

Kafi, M. (1990). Studying the effect of weed control frequencies, row width and density on cumin growth and yield. M.Sc dissertation, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran. [In Farsi]

Khajehpour, M.R. (1999). Principles and foundations of agronomy. Esfahan Industrial University. Esfahan. [In Farsi]

Khorshidi, J., Fakhr Tabatabaei, M., Omidbaigi, R., and Sefidkon. F. (2009). Effect of densities of planting on yield and essential oil components of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill Var. Soroksary). Journal of Agricultural Science, 1(1): 152-157.

Kolata, E., Bresnieewicz, A., Nowosielski, L., and Slow, O. (1992). Slow release fertilizers on organic carriers as the source of N for vegetable crops production in the open field. Acta Horticulture, 339: 241-249.

Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., and Azizi, G. (2006). The effect of different irrigation intervals and plant densities on yield and yield components of two fennel (Foenicolum vulgare) landraces. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 4(1): 131-140. [In Farsi]

Lebaschy, M.H., Sharifi Ashoorabadi, E., and Bakhtiary, M. (2010). The effects of plant densities on yields of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. under dry farming. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 26(1): 121-132. [In Farsi]

Lim, T.K. (2013). Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants: Volume 5, Fruits. Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. 38 P.

Mirshekari1, B. and Farahvash, F. (2011). Management of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizing in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) as a medicinal plant under semi-arid conditions. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 27(4): 541-550. [In Farsi]

Mona, Y., Kandil, A.M., and Swaefy Hend, M.F. (2008). Effect of three different compost levels on fennel and salvia growth character and their essential oils. Biological Sciences. 4: 34-39.

Moradi, R., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Nasiri Mahallati, M., and Lakzian, A. (2009). The effect of application of organic and biological fertilizers on yield, yield components and essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 7(2): 625-635. [In Farsi]

Mousavi, S.G., Seghatoleslami, M.J., and Mousavi, S.M. (2012). Effect of drought stress and nitrogen amounts on yield and water use efficiency of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 5(2): 135-145. [In Farsi]

Mousavi, S.M., Mousavi, S.G., and Seghatoleslami, M.J. (2014). Effect of low water stress and nitrogen amounts on growth and seed and essential oil yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 30(3): 453-462. [In Farsi]

Movaghatian, A., Fateh, E., Ayenehband, A., and Siahpoosh, A. (2014). Investigation of integrated mineral nutrient management son yield and yield components of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Plant Production, 37(2): 113-126. [In Farsi]

Omidbeigi, R. (1995). Approaches for production and processing of medicine herbs. Fekr e Rooz Publications, Tehran, Iran. 423 P. [In Farsi]

Omidbeigi, R. (2009). Producing and processing of medicinal plant. Astan e Ghodas e Razavi Publications, Mashhad, Iran. 378 P. [In Farsi]

Shabahang, J., Khorramdel, S., and Gheshm, R. (2013). Evaluation of symbiosis with mycorhizzal on yield, yield components and essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare mill.) and ajowan (Carum copticum L.) under different nitrogen levels. Agroecology, 5(3): 289-298. [In Farsi]

Sharifi Ashoorabadi, E., Matin, A., and Abbaszadeh, B. (2003). Effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on absorption ability and nitrogen efficiency in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 19(3): 313-330. [In Farsi]

Sharma, A.K. (2002). Biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Agrobios, India. 407 P.

Younesian, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Gholami, A. (2013). The effect of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers application on the quantity and quality of essential oil of foeniculum vulgare (Fennel). Plant Production Technology, 13(2): 63-72. [In Farsi]

References

Akbarinia, A., Khosravifard, M., Rezaee, M.B., and Sharifi Ashoorabadi, E. (2005). Comparison of fall and spring cultivation of fennel, caraway, anise and black cumin under irrigation and no-irrigation conditions. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 21(3): 319-334. [In Farsi]

Badran, F., Abdalla, N., Aly, M., and Ibrahim, S. (2007). Response of fennel plants to seeding rate and partial replacement of mineral NPK by biofertilization treatments. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, 8: 417-422.

Bianco, V.V., Damato, G., and Girardi, A. (1994). Sowing dates, plant density and 'crown' cutting on yield and quality of florence fennel seed. Acta Horticulture, 362: 59-66.

Damato, G., Bianco, V.A., and Laterza, M. (1994). First results of plant density and
nitrogen rate on yield and quality of Florence fennel (Foeniculunm vulgare Mill. Var. azoricum) seeds. Acta Horticulture, 362: 67-73.

Darzi, M.T., Hadj Seyedhadi, M.R., and Rejali, F. (2012). Effects of cattle manure and plant growth promoter bacteria application on some morphological traits and yield in Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 28(3): 434-446. [In Farsi]

Ehsanipour, A., Razmjoo, J., and Zeinali, H. (2012). Effect of nitrogen rates on yield and quality of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) accessions. Industrial Crops and Products 35: 121-125.

Ghilavizadeh, A., Darzi, M., and Haj Seyed Hadi, M. (2013). Effects of biofertilizer and plant density on essntial oil content and yield traits of ajowan (Carum copticum). Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 14(11): 1508-1512.

Ghorbani, S., Paknejad, F., Oroujnia, S., Mirzaei, M., and Babaei, B. (2013). Effect of biofertilizers on grain yield, biological yield and essential oil of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under ecological cropping system. Agronomy and Plant Breeding, 9(1): 63-73. [In Farsi]

Hati, K.M., Mandal, K.G., Misra, A.K., Ghosh, P.K., and Bandyopadhyay, K.K. (2006). Effect of inorganic fertilizer and farmyard manure on soilphysical properties, root distribution, and wateruse efficiency of soybean in Vertisols of central India. Bioresource Technology, 97: 2182-2188.

Jamshidi, E., Ghalavand, A., Sefidkon, F., and Mohammadi Goltapeh, E. (2011). Effects of different nutrition systems (organic, chemical, biologic and integrated) on yield and nutrients concentrations in fennel seed and foliage. Environmental Sciences, 8(4): 59-72. [In Farsi]

Kafi, M. (1990). Studying the effect of weed control frequencies, row width and density on cumin growth and yield. M.Sc dissertation, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran. [In Farsi]

Khajehpour, M.R. (1999). Principles and foundations of agronomy. Esfahan Industrial University. Esfahan. [In Farsi]

Khorshidi, J., Fakhr Tabatabaei, M., Omidbaigi, R., and Sefidkon. F. (2009). Effect of densities of planting on yield and essential oil components of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill Var. Soroksary). Journal of Agricultural Science, 1(1): 152-157.

Kolata, E., Bresnieewicz, A., Nowosielski, L., and Slow, O. (1992). Slow release fertilizers on organic carriers as the source of N for vegetable crops production in the open field. Acta Horticulture, 339: 241-249.

Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., and Azizi, G. (2006). The effect of different irrigation intervals and plant densities on yield and yield components of two fennel (Foenicolum vulgare) landraces. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 4(1): 131-140. [In Farsi]

Lebaschy, M.H., Sharifi Ashoorabadi, E., and Bakhtiary, M. (2010). The effects of plant densities on yields of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. under dry farming. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 26(1): 121-132. [In Farsi]

Lim, T.K. (2013). Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants: Volume 5, Fruits. Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. 38 P.

Mirshekari1, B. and Farahvash, F. (2011). Management of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizing in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) as a medicinal plant under semi-arid conditions. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 27(4): 541-550. [In Farsi]

Mona, Y., Kandil, A.M., and Swaefy Hend, M.F. (2008). Effect of three different compost levels on fennel and salvia growth character and their essential oils. Biological Sciences. 4: 34-39.

Moradi, R., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Nasiri Mahallati, M., and Lakzian, A. (2009). The effect of application of organic and biological fertilizers on yield, yield components and essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 7(2): 625-635. [In Farsi]

Mousavi, S.G., Seghatoleslami, M.J., and Mousavi, S.M. (2012). Effect of drought stress and nitrogen amounts on yield and water use efficiency of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 5(2): 135-145. [In Farsi]

Mousavi, S.M., Mousavi, S.G., and Seghatoleslami, M.J. (2014). Effect of low water stress and nitrogen amounts on growth and seed and essential oil yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 30(3): 453-462. [In Farsi]

Movaghatian, A., Fateh, E., Ayenehband, A., and Siahpoosh, A. (2014). Investigation of integrated mineral nutrient management son yield and yield components of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Plant Production, 37(2): 113-126. [In Farsi]

Omidbeigi, R. (1995). Approaches for production and processing of medicine herbs. Fekr e Rooz Publications, Tehran, Iran. 423 P. [In Farsi]

Omidbeigi, R. (2009). Producing and processing of medicinal plant. Astan e Ghodas e Razavi Publications, Mashhad, Iran. 378 P. [In Farsi]

Shabahang, J., Khorramdel, S., and Gheshm, R. (2013). Evaluation of symbiosis with mycorhizzal on yield, yield components and essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare mill.) and ajowan (Carum copticum L.) under different nitrogen levels. Agroecology, 5(3): 289-298. [In Farsi]

Sharifi Ashoorabadi, E., Matin, A., and Abbaszadeh, B. (2003). Effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on absorption ability and nitrogen efficiency in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 19(3): 313-330. [In Farsi]

Sharma, A.K. (2002). Biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Agrobios, India. 407 P.

Younesian, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Gholami, A. (2013). The effect of organic, biological and chemical fertilizers application on the quantity and quality of essential oil of foeniculum vulgare (Fennel). Plant Production Technology, 13(2): 63-72. [In Farsi]