اثر تاریخ‌کاشت بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه سه رقم گندم در شرایط رقابت با یولاف ‌وحشی

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

3 استاد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

یکی از روش‌های مدیریت علف‌های‌هرز در کشاورزی پایدار، استفاده از ارقام گندم است که ضمن حفظ عملکرد دارای قدرت رقابتی بالایی می‌باشند. به‌منظور ارزیابی تأثیر تاریخ‌کاشت در قدرت رقابتی علف‌ هرز یولاف وحشی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد سه رقم گندم، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز در سال زراعی 1393-1392 اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش تاریخ‌ کشت گندم در سه سطح (25 آبان، 10 آذر و 25 آذر)، ارقام گندم در سه سطح (استار، چمران و ویریناک) و رقابت در دو سطح (با و بدون رقابت) بود. نتایج حاصل نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد دانه در شرایط رقابت با یولاف وحشی با کاشت رقم استار در تاریخ‌های 25 آبان و 10 آذر و هم‌چنین کاشت رقم چمران در 10 آذر، به‌ترتیب به میزان 8/6، 7/7 و 7/8 تن در هکتار به‌دست آمد. در شرایط بدون رقابت، بیشترین عملکرد دانه را رقم استار (10/4) در تاریخ‌کاشت 25 آبان و بعد از آن بدون تفاوت معنی‌داری در تاریخ‌ کشت 10 آذر (10/14) به خود اختصاص داد. عملکرد دانه همبستگی بالایی با تعداد دانه در سنبله (**0/81) و نسبتاً خوب با وزن هزار دانه (**0/59)داشت. بیشترین شاخص رقابت در هر سه رقم در تاریخ کشت 10 آذر مشاهده گردید. گرچه تأخیر در کشت و وجود رقابت باعث کاهش عملکرد گندم شدند، ولی بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش در چنین شرایطی انتخاب رقم استار برای تاریخ‌ کشت 25 آبان و 10 آذر و ویریناک برای کشت تأخیری (اواخر آذر) انتخاب مناسب‌تری بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Planting Date Effect on Yield and Yield Component of Three Wheat Cultivars in Competitive With Wild Oat

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Asadnezhad 1
  • M. Farzaneh 2
  • M. Meskarbashee 3
1 M.Sc. Student of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Wheat cultivars that have suppression potential of weeds besides high yield can be a weed management method in sustainable agriculture.
Materials and Methods
In order to study the competition ability of some wheat cultivar with wild oats in three planting dates, a field experiment as factorial in complete randomize blocks with three replications was carried out at the Agricultural Research Station of Shahid Chamran University in 2013-2014. In this experiment, the factors included planting dates (16th November, 1st December and 16th December), wheat cultivars (Star, Chamran and Virinak) and competition with wild oats (with wild oat, without these weeds).
Results
The result showed, in the competition status, Star cultivar had a higher grain yield than other cultivars in the first planting date (16th November) whereas, it had no significance different with Star and Chamran in the second planting date (1st December). When the cultivars were planted as monoculture, the highest grain yield belong to Star in the first planting date followed by the second planting data. In this condition, Virinak and Chamran in the first planting date had the lowest grain yields. Effect of the planting date on grain yield was the same trend as grain/spike; however, the high correlation with grain/spike (81%) and with thousand grains weight (59%) confirmed it. Three cultivars obtained the highest of competition index in 1st December. Although the competition and planting date resulted in decrease of grain yield, according to this investigation, the best planting date was determined 16th November and 1st December for Star cultivar. When the planting was delayed (16th December), virinak was a better choice.
Discussions
According to the different growth, competitive and morphological characteristics of wheat cultivars, their responses varied in different planting dates in competition against wild oats. The grain yield of Chamran, Star and Virinak cultivars decreased 27, 25 and 23 respectively by competition with wild oats. In this respect, the dry matter of planted wild oats on 1st December than the former and latter planting dates was further damaged by every three wheat cultivars (Star, Chamran and Virinak) besides higher grain yield of wheat cultivars whereas the climatic conditions of this year with previous years differed, suggesting wheat planting with short delay as an agronomy method was assayed in the different years with regard to temperature and hydrothermal effect on wild oats germination and growth in comparison with wheat.
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chamran
  • Grain filling
  • Leaf area duration
  • With long maturity
  • Star
  • Virinak

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