بررسی تأثیر پیش‌تیمار و اندازه‌ی بذر بر ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی دو ژنوتیپ پیاز خوراکی (.Allium cepa L)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

2 استاد، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

4 دانشیار، بخش تحقیقات زراعی باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی آذربایجان شرقی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی تبریز

چکیده

به‌منظور ارزیابی تأثیر پرایمینگ و اندازه‌یبذر برویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی ژنوتیپ‌های پیاز خوراکی، پژوهش حاضردردو سال زراعی (1391 و 1392)به‌صورت فاکتوریل درقالبطرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان شرقی اجرا گردید. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل پرایمینگ در چهار سطح (هیدروپرایمینگ با آب مقطر، اسموپرایمینگ با نیترات پتاسیم، پرایمینگ با استفاده ازماده‌ی فولامین وشاهد)، اندازه‌ی بذر در سه سطح (ریز با قطر 2/6، متوسط با قطر 2/8 و درشت با قطر 3 میلی‌متر) و ژنوتیپ در دو سطح (قرمزآذرشهر و زرقان)بود. ویژگی‌های عملکرد تر و خشک سوخ، وزن تر و خشک سوخ، درصد ماده خشک و مواد جامد محلول میزان خاکستر سوخ و برگ، میزان pH سوخ و غلظت اسید پیروویک مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. اثر پیش‌تیمار و اندازه بذر از نظر تمام ویژگی‌ها از لحاظ آماری تفاوت معنی‌دار را نشان داند و پرایمینگبذرموجببهبودویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی سوخ گردیدبه‌طوری که بیشترین عملکردهای تر و خشک سوخ، درصد ماده خشک و مواد جامد محلول به‌ترتیب 58/17، 7/27 تن در هکتار و 12/54، 13/67 درصد بهپرایمینگ با فولامینتعلقداشت و کمترین آن‌ها از تیمار شاهد به‌دست ‌آمد. مقایسه میانگین‌ها نشاندادکه بیشترینعملکرد تر و خشک سوخ، درصد ماده خشک و مواد جامد محلول به‌ترتیب 58/99، 7/37 تن در هکتار و 11/14، 12/45 درصد از بذور درشتو کمترین آن‌ها از بذر ریز به‌دست ‌آمد. مقایسه میانگین ژنوتیپ‌ها نشان داد، قرمزآذرشهر با بیشترین عملکرد تر (53/46 تن در هکتار)، عملکرد خشک سوخ (6/68 تن در هکتار)، ماده خشک (11/81 درصد) و مواد جامد محلول (12/62 درصد) ژنوتیپ برتر شناخته شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Pre-treatment and Seed Size on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Two Onion (Allium cepa L.) Genotypes

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. I. 1
  • M. T. 2
  • j. j. 3
  • B. P. 4
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Seed priming is a type of pre-sowing seed treatment known to improve seed performance by increasing seed germination rate and uniformity. Another factor which could be helpful for rapid and uniform germination and emergence is seed size. Seed size is a component of seed quality which has an impact on the performance of crop. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of priming and seed size on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of two onion genotypes.
Materials and methods
In order to evaluate the effect of priming and seed size on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of onion genotypes a factorial field experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2012 and 2013 cropping season at Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of  East Azarbayjan, Iran. The experimental treatments included priming (at four levels: hydro priming, osmopriming (in 2% KNO3), priming with folammin amino acid (in 2%) and control (without priming), seed size (at three levels: small, medium and large) and genotype (at two levels: Red Azarshahr and Zargan). Quantitative characteristics included bulb fresh and dry yield, bulb, leave fresh and dry weight and qualitative characteristics included percentages of soluble solids and dry matter, bulb pH, pyruvic acid content, bulb and Leave ash of onion.
Results
Analysis of variance for the measured traits indicated that all characteristics significantly were affected by priming and seed size. Results showed that seed priming and seed size improved quantitative and qualitative characteristics of onions. The highest bulb fresh and dry yield, total soluble solids and dry matter, were obtained from plant that primed with folammin amino acid 58.17, 7.27 (tha-1), 12.54, 13.67 percent, respectively, and the lowest were achieved from control plants. Also, mean comparison indicated that the higher values of bulb fresh and dry yield, total soluble solids and dry matter were obtained from large seed size 58.99, 7.37 (tha-1), 11.14, 12.45 percent, respectively and the lower values were found to belong to small seed size. Genotypes mean comparison showed that the higher values of bulb fresh and dry yield, total soluble solids and dry matter were obtained from Red Azarshahr cultivar 53.46, 6.68 (tha-1), 12.62, 11.81 percent, respectively.
Discussion
According to the results mentioned above, seed priming treatments improved quantitative and qualitative characteristics as compared to the unprimed. Among the treatments, seed priming with folammin amino acid 2 % was more effective than the potassium nitrite 2 % and hydropriming. Large seed size significantly increased the quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Accordingly, the importance of seed priming and seed grading was obvious in this study, so seed priming with folammin amino acid 2% and large seed size should be used for onion planting in order to improve quantitative and qualitative characteristics of onion. Therefore priming with folammin amino acid 2 % and large seed are recommended for onion planting for the places with the same environmental conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bulb fresh yield
  • Folammin
  • Priming
  • Pungency

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