اثر پرایمینگ بذر و کیفیت آب آبیاری بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه و روغن دو ژنوتیپ کنجد (.Sesamum indicum L)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد ،گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده‌ی کشاورزی دانشگاه یاسوج

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده‌ی کشاورزی دانشگاه یاسوج

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر کیفیت آب، پرایمینگ و ژنوتیپ بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد کنجد آزمایشی مزرعه‌ای به صورت اسپلیت پلات فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در 3 تکرار در شهرستان دشتستان استان بوشهر در سال 1392 انجام شد. کرت‌های اصلی شامل دو کیفیت آب (کیفیت آب اول: با هدایت الکتریکی dS/m 4/3 و املاح محلول g/l 14/2 و اسیدیته 7/7 و کلسیم ppm 560 و سدیم ppm 276؛ کیفیت آب دوم: با هدایت الکتریکی dS/m 601/0 و املاح محلول g/l 33/0 و اسیدیته 4/7 و کلسیم ppm 96 و سدیم ppm 23) و کرت‌های فرعی شامل فاکتوریل ژنوتیپ (دشتستان 2 و لاین 5) و پرایمینگ (اسید سالیسیلیک در دو غلظت 25 و 50 میلی‌گرم در لیتر و NaCl در دو غلظت 5 و10 گرم در لیتر و نیز هیدروپرایمینگ به عنوان شاهد) می‌باشد. نتایج نشان داد که برهمکنش کیفیت آب، ژنوتیپ و پرایمینگ باعث تغییرات متفاوتی در صفات عملکرد و اجرای عملکرد گردید که بهترین پرایمینگ و ژنوتیپ برای تعداد شاخه و کپسول در بوته، وزن خشک کپسول، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه در ژنوتیپ دشتستان 2 و پرایمینگ با اسیدسالیسیلیک 25 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر در کیفیت آب اول مشاهده شد. اعمال کیفیت آب دوم منجر به کاهش تعداد کپسول، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد می‌شود. به نظر می‌رسد که بین ژنوتیپ‌های مورد مطالعه، ژنوتیپ دشتستان 2 در شرایط کیفیت آب اول، با بیشترین مقدار عملکرد دانه، روغن و اجزای عملکرد بیشترین میزان تطابق با شرایط آزمایشی را نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Priming and Irrigation Water Quality on Seed and Oil yield and Yield Components of Two Sesames (Sesamum indicum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masumeh Alizadeh 1
  • h b 2
  • Alireza yadavi 2
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
As on of the world's arid and semiarid climate regions, Iran suffers from two major problems of soil and irrigation water quality in agriculture of arid regions. The first and most critical step of plant growth and development is germination; in addition, the uniformity of germination, average time of germination and emergence are also important parameters in seed quality. One of the new techniques in this regard the use of seed pretreatment that is generally referred to as priming. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water quality on yield and yield components of two sesame genotypes and determine the genotypes that adapt themselves quickly to changing circumstances of priming and water quality.
Material and methods
In order to study the effects of water quality, priming and genotypes on yield and yield components of sesame, a field experiment as split plot factorial based on RCBD with three replications was conducted in Dashtestan of Bushehr province in 2013. The main plot involves two measures of water quality (the first by the EC: 3.4 ds/m, soluble salts: 2.14 g/l, pH: 7.7, calcium and sodium: 560 and 276 ppm, and the second by the EC: 0.601 ds/m, soluble salts: 0.33 g/l, pH: 7.4 and calcium and sodium: 96 and 23 ppm) and the sub-plot consisted of factorial arrangement of genotypes (Dashtestan 2 and Line 5) and priming (salicylic acid in 25 and 50 mg per liter and NaCl in 5 and 10 grams per liter and hydro priming as a control). Ultimately, the grain yield, oil yield, yield components, length and weight of were measured capsules.
Result
The results showed that water quality, genotypes and priming interactions caused different changes in yield and yield components. The best genotypes and priming for number of branch, number of capsules per plant, capsule dry weight, thousand seed weight and grain yield belong to the Dashtestan 2 genotype and priming with salicylic acid in 25 mg per liter at the first water quality. Applying a second water quality led to reduction in the number of capsules, thousand seed weight and grain yield. It seems that Dashtestan 2 among the studied genotypes in the first water quality condition, with the highest grain yield, oil and yield components showed the highest rate of compliance with the experimental conditions.
Discussion
Background and Objectives
As on of the world's arid and semiarid climate regions, Iran suffers from two major problems of soil and irrigation water quality in agriculture of arid regions. The first and most critical step of plant growth and development is germination; in addition, the uniformity of germination, average time of germination and emergence are also important parameters in seed quality. One of the new techniques in this regard the use of seed pretreatment that is generally referred to as priming. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water quality on yield and yield components of two sesame genotypes and determine the genotypes that adapt themselves quickly to changing circumstances of priming and water quality.
Material and methods
In order to study the effects of water quality, priming and genotypes on yield and yield components of sesame, a field experiment as split plot factorial based on RCBD with three replications was conducted in Dashtestan of Bushehr province in 2013. The main plot involves two measures of water quality (the first by the EC: 3.4 ds/m, soluble salts: 2.14 g/l, pH: 7.7, calcium and sodium: 560 and 276 ppm, and the second by the EC: 0.601 ds/m, soluble salts: 0.33 g/l, pH: 7.4 and calcium and sodium: 96 and 23 ppm) and the sub-plot consisted of factorial arrangement of genotypes (Dashtestan 2 and Line 5) and priming (salicylic acid in 25 and 50 mg per liter and NaCl in 5 and 10 grams per liter and hydro priming as a control). Ultimately, the grain yield, oil yield, yield components, length and weight of were measured capsules.
Result
The results showed that water quality, genotypes and priming interactions caused different changes in yield and yield components. The best genotypes and priming for number of branch, number of capsules per plant, capsule dry weight, thousand seed weight and grain yield belong to the Dashtestan 2 genotype and priming with salicylic acid in 25 mg per liter at the first water quality. Applying a second water quality led to reduction in the number of capsules, thousand seed weight and grain yield. It seems that Dashtestan 2 among the studied genotypes in the first water quality condition, with the highest grain yield, oil and yield components showed the highest rate of compliance with the experimental conditions.
Discussion
The two genotypes of sesame were different in saline conditions in terms of capsule manufacturing per plant. It seems that the salinity may limit and disrupt the balance in nutrient uptake by the roots, resulting in the production and allocation of assimilates to reproductive organs, such as decrease of the components, and reproductive organs; the salt may lead to the loss of the number of capsules per plant. In general, it seems that the number of capsules per plant of sesame ecotypes has genetic diversity and this feature can be used in breeding programs. Beneficial effects of salicylic acid on grain yield in relation to the transfer of photosynthesis assimilate in grains during grain filling that is a result of increased grain weight.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Seed priming
  • Sesame
  • water quality
  • Electricalconductivity